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Diseases & Conditions

  • 5 Ways to Prepare for an Allergy Emergency

    Being prepared for an allergy emergency will help you, your child, and other caregivers respond in the event of a serious reaction.

  • Air Pollution and Asthma

    Ground-level ozone and other air pollutants can trigger asthma flare-ups. But there are steps you can take to minimize your child's exposure.

  • Allergy Shots

    Many kids battle allergies year-round, and some can't control their symptoms with medications. For them, allergy shots (or allergen immunotherapy) can help.

  • Celiac Disease

    Celiac disease happens when someone has a food intolerance to gluten. Here's how to manage symptoms and prevent damage to the intestines.

  • Coronavirus (COVID-19) and Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C)

    Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) causes inflammation throughout the body. Doctors are trying to find out how these symptoms are related to coronavirus (COVID-19) infection.

  • Coughing

    Coughs are a common symptom, but most aren't a sign of a serious condition. Learn about different coughs, how to help your child feel better, and when to call your doctor.

  • Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    Allergies don't cause asthma, but kids who have allergies are more likely to get asthma.

  • Eczema (Atopic Dermatitis)

    Eczema can be an itchy nuisance and cause scratching that makes the problem worse. Many kids who have eczema today will be over it by the time they're teens.

  • Egg Allergy

    Helping your child manage an egg allergy means reading food labels carefully, being aware of what he or she eats, and carrying the right medicines in case of an allergic reaction.

  • First Aid: Allergic Reactions

    Although most allergic reactions aren't serious, severe reactions can be life-threatening and can require immediate medical attention.

  • Fish Allergy

    Fish allergy can cause a serious reaction. Find out how to keep kids safe.

  • Food Allergies

    Food allergies can cause serious and even deadly reactions in kids, so it's important to know how to feed a child with food allergies and to prevent reactions.

  • Going to School With Food Allergies

    With preparation and education, a child with a food allergy can stay safe at school.

  • Henoch-Schönlein Purpura (HSP)

    Most kids who develop this inflammation of the blood vessels (marked by a raised red and purple rash) make a full recovery and have no long-term problems.

  • Hives (Urticaria)

    Has your child broken out in welts? It could be a case of the hives. Learn how to soothe itchy bumps and help your child feel better.

  • How Do Doctors Test for Food Allergies?

    Find out what the experts have to say.

  • If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should I Look for When Reading Food Labels?

    Food labels can help you spot allergens your child must avoid. Find out more.

  • Immune Thrombocytopenia

    Immune thrombocytopenia happens when the immune system attacks platelets. Viral infections often trigger this in children, but it usually goes away within 6 months.

  • Inflammation

    Inflammation is one way the body reacts to infection, injury, or other medical conditions. Many things can cause it.

  • Insect Sting Allergy

    Insect sting allergies can cause serious reactions. Find out how to keep kids safe.

  • Kids and Allergies

    Many kids have an allergy. Find out how allergies are diagnosed and how to keep them under control.

  • Milk Allergy

    Milk allergy can cause serious reactions. Find out how to keep kids safe.

  • Milk Allergy in Infants

    Almost all infants are fussy at times. But some are very fussy because they have an allergy to the protein in cow's milk, which is the basis for most commercial baby formulas.

  • Nut and Peanut Allergy

    If your child is allergic to nuts or peanuts, it's essential to learn what foods might contain them and how to avoid them.

  • Poison Ivy

    Most people get a reaction to poison ivy. Check out this article for tips on what to do and how to avoid poison ivy.

  • PrEP (Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis)

    PrEP (pre-exposure prophylaxis) is when someone takes medicines every day to lower his or her chances of getting HIV.

  • Psoriasis

    Psoriasis causes skin cells to build up on the surface of the skin where they form itchy, red patches and thick scales. Find out what causes psoriasis and how to help your child deal with it.

  • Seasonal Allergies (Hay Fever)

    At various times of the year, pollen and mold spores trigger the cold-like symptoms associated with seasonal allergies. Most kids find relief through reduced exposure to allergens or with medicines.

  • Serious Allergic Reactions (Anaphylaxis)

    Kids with severe allergies can be at risk for a sudden, serious allergic reaction called anaphylaxis. The good news is that when treated properly, anaphylaxis can be managed.

  • Sesame Allergy

    Sesame is one of the most common foods that can cause allergic reactions. Avoiding sesame means more than just not eating it. It also means not eating any foods that might contain sesame as ingredients.

  • Severe Combined Immunodeficiency

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is an immune deficiency that can be successfully treated if it's found early.

  • Shellfish Allergy

    Shellfish allergy can cause serious reactions. Find out common symptoms of allergic reactions and how to respond.

  • Soy Allergy

    Soy is found in many foods and it's a common food allegy. Find out how to help kids with an allergy stay safe.

  • Stem Cell Transplants

    Stem cells help rebuild a weakened immune system. Stem cell transplants are effective treatments for a wide range of diseases, including cancer.

  • Thrombocytopenia

    Thrombocytopenia is when someone has too few platelets in their bloodstream. Many things can cause it and most can be treated.

  • What Is Oral Allergy Syndrome?

    Oral allergy syndrome can cause an itchy mouth and throat. Find out more.

  • What Is Skin Testing for Allergies?

    A scratch or skin prick test is a common way doctors find out more about a person's allergies.

  • What's the Difference Between a Food Allergy and a Food Intolerance?

    Food allergies and food intolerances, like lactose intolerance, are not the same. Find out more.

  • Wheat Allergy

    Wheat allergy can cause serious reactions. Find out how to help kids with an allergy stay safe.

  • Words to Know: Transplants

    Easy-to-understand definitions of some key transplant terms.

  • Arthrogram

    An arthrogram is a test done to look inside a joint for injuries or other problems.

  • Coronavirus (COVID-19) and Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C)

    Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) causes inflammation throughout the body. Doctors are trying to find out how these symptoms are related to coronavirus (COVID-19) infection.

  • Enthesitis-Related Juvenile Arthritis

    Enthesitis-related juvenile idiopathic arthritis causes inflammation where tendons and ligaments connect to bones. Treatments can help with symptoms, so children can live a full and active life.

  • Fibromyalgia

    The chronic condition fibromyalgia causes widespread pain in the muscles, joints, and other areas of the body. Lifestyle changes and other strategies can help kids who have it feel better.

  • Henoch-Schönlein Purpura (HSP)

    Most kids who develop this inflammation of the blood vessels (marked by a raised red and purple rash) make a full recovery and have no long-term problems.

  • Inflammation

    Inflammation is one way the body reacts to infection, injury, or other medical conditions. Many things can cause it.

  • Jumper's Knee

    Jumper's knee is an overuse injury that happens when frequent jumping, running, and changing direction damages the patellar tendon.

  • Juvenile Dermatomyositis

    Juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) is an autoimmune disease that makes muscles, skin, and sometimes other organs become inflamed or damaged.

  • Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a group of disorders that cause arthritis (stiff, swollen, painful joints) in children.

  • Lupus

    Lupus is known as an autoimmune disease in which a person's immune system mistakenly works against the body's own tissues.

  • Oligoarticular Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis is a type of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Children with the condition have arthritis in fewer than five joints, and treatments can help with symptoms

  • Polyarticular Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Children with polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis have arthritis in five or more joints during the first 6 months of illness. Treatments can help with symptoms, so children can live a full and active life.

  • Systemic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Children with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (systemic JIA) have periods of arthritis along with a fever and rash. Treatments can help with symptoms, so children can live a full and active life.

  • Asthma

    Asthma makes it hard to breathe. But with treatment, the condition can be managed so that kids can still do the things they love. Learn all about asthma.

  • Asthma Flare-Ups

    Find out how to deal with — and help prevent — asthma flare-ups ("attacks"), which is when asthma symptoms get worse.

  • Asthma Medicines

    Asthma medicine comes in two main types: quick-relief and long-term control medicines. Even if a child takes a long-term control medicine regularly, quick-relief medicine is still needed to handle flare-ups.

  • Asthma Triggers

    Triggers — things in the air, weather conditions, or activities — can cause asthma flare-ups. By knowing and avoiding triggers, you'll help lessen your child's asthma symptoms.

  • Asthma: Parents Talk (Video)

    Hear what parents have to say about raising kids with asthma.

  • Can Kids and Teens With Asthma Play Sports?

    Kids and teens who have asthma can and do play sports. But some activities are better than others - find out more.

  • Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma?

    Sometimes, the weather can affect a child's asthma symptoms. Here are some tips for dealing with it.

  • Dealing With Triggers: Pets

    Do pets make your child's allergies or asthma worse? Here's how to handle it.

  • Definition: Exercise-Induced Asthma

    Some people have exercise-induced asthma, which means that their asthma symptoms (such as coughing, wheezing, or shortness of breath) are triggered by exercise or physical activity.

  • Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    Allergies don't cause asthma, but kids who have allergies are more likely to get asthma.

  • Exercise-Induced Asthma

    Many kids with asthma have symptoms when they exercise. But with careful management, they usually can do anything their peers can do.

  • First Aid: Asthma Flare-Ups

    During a flare-up or attack, it's hard to breathe. While some flare-ups are mild, others can be life threatening, so it's important to deal with them right away.

  • Inflammation

    Inflammation is one way the body reacts to infection, injury, or other medical conditions. Many things can cause it.

  • Managing Asthma

    Asthma control can take a little time and energy to master, but it's worth the effort. Learn more about ways to manage your child's asthma.

  • My Baby Is Wheezing. Is it Asthma?

    Find out what the experts have to say.

  • School and Asthma

    Asthma flare-ups are the main reason kids with asthma miss school. But well-managed asthma is far less likely to result in a sick day.

  • Traveling and Asthma

    With some careful planning, kids with asthma can enjoy all the benefits of a trip away from home.

  • What Are Nebulizers and Inhalers?

    Find out how these asthma tools help kids take their medicines.

  • What's an Asthma Action Plan?

    Find out how this written plan can help you care for your child with asthma.

  • When to Go to the ER if Your Child Has Asthma

    If your child has asthma, find out when you need to go to the ER.

  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Tears

    ACL injuries can happen in active and athletic kids when excessive pressure is put on the knee joint, resulting in a torn ligament.

  • Arthrogryposis

    Children with arthrogryposis have stiff joints that don't move well. Treatments like splinting, bracing, therapy, and surgery help kids get the best range of motion.

  • Basilar Invagination

    Basilar invagination is when the top of the spine pushes up into the base of the skull. It causes pinching and pressing on the brain stem.

  • Becker Muscular Dystrophy

    Becker muscular dystrophy is a genetic disorder that gradually makes the body's muscles weaker and smaller. It causes less severe problems than the most common type of MD, Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

  • Blount Disease

    Blount disease is a growth disorder that causes the bones of the lower leg to bow outward. This gets worse if it's not treated, so early diagnosis is very important.

  • Bow Legs (Genu Varum)

    Bow legs is when the legs curve outward at the knees while the feet and ankles touch. Infants and toddlers often have bow legs. It's rarely serious and usually goes away on its own.

  • Broken Bones

    Many kids will have a broken bone at some point. Here's what to expect.

  • Broken Collarbone (Clavicle Fracture)

    Learn about broken collarbones (or clavicle fractures), a common sports injury in kids.

  • Buckle Fractures

    A buckle or torus fracture is a type of broken bone. One side of the bone bends, raising a little buckle, without breaking the other side of the bone.

  • Casts

    Casts keep bones and other tissues in place while they heal. Here's what to expect, and how to care for casts.

  • Cerebral Palsy: Parents Talk (Video)

    Get advice from parents raising kids with cerebral palsy. Learn what works, what doesn’t, and what helped these families the most.

  • Cervical Kyphosis

    Cervical kyphosis is a curve at the top of the spine (backbone). Usually, the condition isn't serious, but a pinch in the spinal cord can cause nerve damage.

  • Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease (CMT)

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is a neurological disorder. It causes muscle weakness and numbness, most commonly in the arms and legs.

  • Chest Wall Disorder: Pectus Carinatum

    Pectus carinatum, sometimes called pigeon chest, is a deformity of the chest wall in which the chest juts out.

  • Chest Wall Disorder: Pectus Excavatum

    Pectus excavatum is a deformity of the chest wall that causes several ribs and the breastbone to grow abnormally, giving the chest a "caved-in" appearance.

  • Chest Wall Disorder: Poland Syndrome

    Poland syndrome is a condition where a child is born with missing or underdeveloped chest muscles.

  • CLOVES Syndrome

    CLOVES syndrome is a very rare genetic disorder that causes vascular, skin, spinal, and bone or joint abnormalities.

  • Clubfoot

    Clubfoot is a birth defect that makes one or both of a baby's feet point down and turn in. Most clubfeet can be successfully corrected using the nonsurgical Ponseti method.

  • Comminuted Fractures

    A comminuted fracture is a type of broken bone. The bone is broken into more than two pieces.

  • Common Childhood Orthopedic Conditions

    Flatfeet, toe walking, pigeon toes, bowlegs, and knock-knees. Lots of kids have these common orthopedic conditions, but are they medical problems that can and should be corrected?

  • Compression Fracture of the Spine

    A compression fracture of the spine is when the vertebrae (bones that form the spine) collapses. People with weakened bones can get them from a minor fall or with no trauma at all.

  • Congenital Kyphosis

    Kyphosis is a rounding of the back that some children are born with. It makes the back look hunched over.

  • Costochondritis

    Costochondritis is a painful swelling of the cartilage that attaches the ribs to the breastbone. It's one of the most common causes of chest pain in kids and teens.

  • Craniosynostosis

    Craniosynostosis is when seams between bones in the skull close too soon. When this happens, the skull can’t expand grow as it should, and it develops an unusual shape.

  • Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip

    Babies can be born with this hip problem or develop it soon after birth. Early treatment can help the hip joint grow normally.

  • Dislocated Kneecap (Dislocated Patella)

    A dislocated kneecap is when the bone in the front of the knee (the kneecap or patella) slides out of place. A person with a dislocated kneecap needs care at the hospital right away.

  • Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is the most common form of muscular dystrophy. It gradually makes the body's muscles weaker.

  • Dwarfism

    Dwarfism is a condition that is characterized by short stature. Many of the possible complications of dwarfism are treatable, and people of short stature lead healthy, active lives.

  • External Fixator: Pin Care

    External fixators used for limb lengthening have pins that go through the skin and into the bone. It's important to know how to care for the pins at home to prevent infections.

  • Fibromyalgia

    The chronic condition fibromyalgia causes widespread pain in the muscles, joints, and other areas of the body. Lifestyle changes and other strategies can help kids who have it feel better.

  • Fibular Hemimelia

    Babies who have fibular hemimelia are born with a short or missing fibula. Experts who treat bone problems have several options to help kids with a hemimelia.

  • Flat Feet

    Most babies and toddlers have flat feet. As they grow, an arch usually develops. But some kids have flat feet for life.

  • Ganglion Cysts

    Ganglion cysts are lumps that, most commonly, appear on the back of the wrist. These cysts are not cancerous and are easily treated.

  • Getting an X-Ray

    An X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses a small amount of radiation to make an image of bones, organs, and other parts of the body. Here's how they're done.

  • Goldenhar Syndrome

    Goldenhar syndrome can cause incomplete development of bones in the face, affecting the ear, nose, soft palate, lip, and jaw. A cleft and craniofacial care team can help kids born with the condition.

  • Greenstick Fractures

    A greenstick fracture is a type of broken bone. The bone cracks on one side only, not all the way through the bone.

  • Growth Plate Fractures

    Injuries to growth plates, which produce new bone tissue and determine the final length and shape of bones in adulthood, must be treated so that bones heal properly.

  • Growth Plates

    Growth plates are the areas of new bone growth, usually near the ends of long bones. A growth plate is weaker than solid bone. This makes it more likely to get injured.

  • Guillain-Barré Syndrome

    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a rare medical condition that affects the nerves outside the brain and spinal cord. Luckily, most people who get GBS recover.

  • Halo Brace

    Much like a fiberglass cast holds a broken arm or leg in place, a "halo" with vest holds a child's head and neck in place after a spinal injury so that spinal bones can heal.

  • Halo-Gravity Traction

    Halo-gravity traction is a way to pull the head and spine upward. Doctors use it to treat curvature of the spine and to prepare kids for spinal fusion surgery.

  • How Broken Bones Heal

    Broken bones have an amazing ability to heal, especially in kids. Full healing can take time, but new bone usually forms a few weeks after an injury.

  • How the Joints Work

    See how the joints work.

  • Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Kids of any age can have idiopathic scoliosis, but it's usually found when a child begins going through puberty. Find out more about the signs of and treatment for idiopathic scoliosis.

  • In-Toeing

    In-toeing is when feet point inward while walking. It happens in a lot of kids who are learning to walk. Sometimes people call it walking "pigeon-toed."

  • Incentive Spirometer

    An incentive spirometer trains people to take slow, deep breaths. It's used during recovery from some types of surgery or as a way to manage illness. Find out how it works.

  • Infant Torticollis

    Babies with this condition have trouble turning their heads, due to muscle tightness. Simple stretching exercises and physical therapy can help babies get better.

  • Inflammation

    Inflammation is one way the body reacts to infection, injury, or other medical conditions. Many things can cause it.

  • Jumper's Knee

    Jumper's knee is an overuse injury that happens when frequent jumping, running, and changing direction damages the patellar tendon.

  • Knee Injuries

    Knee injuries are common among young athletes. Learn about causes, treatments, and prevention.

  • Knock Knees (Genu Valgum)

    Kids often have knock knees (when knees touch but the ankles are apart). They usually go away without on their own by the time a child is 7 or 8 years old.

  • Kyphosis

    Everyone's spine is slightly rounded forward at a gentle angle. If this angle is too pronounced, more than 50 degrees or so, it's called kyphosis, also known as roundback or hunchback.

  • Leg Length Discrepancy

    Leg length discrepancy is when someone’s legs are different lengths. For a big difference or one that's likely to get worse, treatment is recommended.

  • Legg-Calvé-Perthes Disease

    Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease changes the hip joint and can cause a stiff joint, pain, and a limp.

  • Limb Differences

    Kids with limb deformities have differences in the way their arms or legs are shaped. Some don't need treatment, For those that do, doctors have different options.

  • Limb Lengthening Surgery: External Fixator

    Limb lengthening surgery is done when someone has a leg length discrepancy (one leg is shorter than the other). Sometimes this is treated with an external fixator.

  • Limb Lengthening Surgery: Internal Lengthening Device

    Limb lengthening surgery is done when someone has a leg length discrepancy (one leg is shorter than the other). Sometimes this is treated with an internal lengthening device (a rod with a magnet).

  • Little League Elbow

    Little League elbow is an overuse injury to the elbow caused by repetitive throwing. Most cases happen in pitchers, but any young athlete who throws a lot can get the condition.

  • Low Calcium in Babies (Hypocalcemia)

    Hypocalcemia is when the blood has too little calcium. It can be treated with calcium and vitamin D supplements.

  • Marfan Syndrome

    Marfan syndrome affects the body's connective tissue and can cause problems in the eyes, joints, and heart. Even though the disease has no cure, doctors can successfully treat just about all of its symptoms.

  • Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) Injuries

    MCL injuries can happen in active and athletic kids, when excessive pressure is put on the knee joint, resulting in a torn ligament.

  • Meningocele

    Some babies are born with a meningocele, which is a sac that pushes through the gap in the spine. With surgery to fix the problem, most babies with a meningocele live a healthy, normal life.

  • Muscular Dystrophy

    Muscular dystrophy is a disorder that weakens a person's muscles over time. People who have the disease can gradually lose the ability to do everyday tasks.

  • Myasthenia Gravis

    Myasthenia gravis (or myasthenia) happens when voluntary muscles get weaker. Treatments can help symptoms.

  • Myelomeningocele

    Myelomeningocele is a type of spina bifida in which a baby is born with a gap in the bones of the spine.

  • Nursemaid's Elbow

    Young kids are at risk for a common injury known as nursemaid's elbow, which is easy for a doctor to fix. To help prevent it, never swing or lift a child by the lower arm, hands, or wrists.

  • Osgood-Schlatter Disease

    Osgood-Schlatter disease (OSD) is one of the most common causes of knee pain in adolescents. It's really not a disease, but an overuse injury.

  • Osteochondritis Dissecans

    Osteochondritis dissecans is when a piece of bone and the attached cartilage break down and become loose. If it heals completely, kids who have it usually don't have any long-lasting problems.

  • Osteogenesis Imperfecta (Brittle Bone Disease)

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (or brittle bone disease) prevents the body from building strong bones. People with OI have bones that might break easily.

  • Osteomyelitis

    Osteomyelitis is a bone infection that can happen when germs enter an open wound. The easiest way to prevent it is to keep skin clean.

  • Out-Toeing

    Out-toeing is when feet point outward while walking. It happens to a lot of kids when they are learning to walk.

  • Panner's Disease

    Panner's disease is a painful bone condition linked to overuse of the elbow. Kids with Panner's disease need to avoid all activities that cause pain so the bone can heal.

  • Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (Runner's Knee)

    Patellofemoral pain syndrome (or runner's knee) is the most common overuse injury among runners, but it can also happen to other athletes who do activities that require a lot of knee bending.

  • Pectus Carinatum: Bracing

    Pectus carinatum, sometimes called pigeon chest, is when the chest juts out. Sometimes it's treated by wearing a brace.

  • Pectus Excavatum: The Nuss Procedure

    The Nuss procedure is a surgery to correct severe pectus excavatum. It’s considered "minimally invasive" because only a few small cuts are needed.

  • Pectus Excavatum: Vacuum Bell Device

    Health care providers sometimes suggest that kids use a vacuum bell to help correct pectus excavatum, a condition that causes a caved-in chest.

  • Polydactyly

    Polydactyly is when a baby is born with an extra finger on the hand or an extra toe on the foot. It can be on one or both hands or feet.

  • Pompe Disease

    Pompe disease is a rare genetic condition that makes muscles get weaker over time.

  • Postural Kyphosis

    Postural kyphosis is rounding or hunching of the back that usually affects teens. It's due to "bad" posture and not disease.

  • Radial Dysplasia

    Babies with radial dysplasia (also called radial club hand) are born with a short or missing radial bone. This makes the wrist turn in.

  • Repetitive Stress Injuries in Sports

    Repetitive stress injuries (RSIs) happen when movements are repeated over and over, damaging a bone, tendon, or joint.

  • Rickets

    Rickets is when bones become soft and weak, usually because a child doesn't get enough vitamin D. Most kids with rickets get better with treatment.

  • Rigo Cheneau Brace

    A Rigo Cheneau brace is a type of spine brace for scoliosis. Used with physical therapy, it can improve a child’s posture.

  • Scheuermann's Kyphosis

    Scheuermann's kyphosis is a condition affecting the upper back that makes it rounded so it looks hunched over.

  • Scoliosis

    Scoliosis makes a person’s spine curve from side to side. Large curves can cause health problems like pain or breathing trouble. Health care providers treat scoliosis with back braces or surgery when needed.

  • Scoliosis: Bracing

    Some kids with scoliosis wear a brace to help stop their curve from getting worse as they grow. Find out more about the different types of scoliosis braces.

  • Sever's Disease

    Sever's disease, a common heel injury in kids, is due to inflammation (swelling) of the growth plate in the heel. While painful, it's only temporary and has no long-term effects.

  • Shin Splints

    Shin splints are pain on the inner part of the shinbone, often from running or another high-impact activity. They get better with rest.

  • Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis (SCFE)

    Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is a shift at the upper part of the thighbone, or femur, that results in a weakened hip joint. Fortunately, when caught early, most cases of SCFE can be treated successfully.

  • Spina Bifida

    Spina bifida is a birth defect that involves the incomplete development of the spinal cord or its coverings. It's usually detected before a baby is born and treated right away.

  • Spina Bifida Occulta

    In spina bifida occulta, a baby is born with a gap in the spine's bones, but the spinal cord and its covering do not push through it.

  • Spinal Fusion Surgery

    A spinal fusion is a surgical procedure that's done to stabilize or straighten the bones in the back. It can help kids and teens with scoliosis.

  • Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA)

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a condition that causes muscle weakness and atrophy. There's no cure, but therapy and other treatments can help most people who have SMA.

  • Spinal Muscular Atrophy: Steven's Story (Video)

    A teen athlete talks about why he won't let his condition take him out of the game.

  • Splints

    A splint is a support device that keeps an injured area from moving. Doctors often use splints to hold bones and joints in place so they can heal after a fracture.

  • Spondylolisthesis

    Spondylolisthesis happens when a bone in the back slips forward and out of place. In kids and teens, it’s a common cause of lower back pain.

  • Spondylolysis

    Spondylolysis is a very common cause of lower back pain in kids, teens, and young adults. It usually heals quickly with rest and other nonsurgical treatments.

  • Stress Fractures

    A stress fracture is a tiny crack in a bone. They usually happen from repeating the same movement over and over.

  • Symbrachydactyly

    Babies with symbrachydactyly are born with short often webbed fingers. Some might be missing fingers.

  • Syndactyly

    Syndactyly is when a baby is born with two or more fingers or toes joined or "webbed" together.

  • The Ponseti Clubfoot Brace: Tips for Parents

    Correcting your child’s clubfoot begins with a series of casts and ends with a brace. Here's how to help your child wear it successfully.

  • The Ponseti Method: Bracing Phase

    The Ponseti method to treat clubfoot is done in two phases – the casting phase gradually moves the foot to the correct position, and the bracing phase makes sure it stays there. Learn about bracing.

  • The Ponseti Method: Casting Phase

    The Ponseti method to treat clubfoot is done in two phases – the casting phase gradually moves the foot to the correct position, and the bracing phase makes sure it stays there. Learn about casting.

  • The Ravitch Procedure

    The Ravitch procedure is a surgery to correct severe pectus carinatum and pectus excavatum.

  • The WREX Orthosis (Assistive Device)

    The WREX is an assistive device that kids can wear to help them if they have weak arms.

  • Thumb Duplication

    Babies with thumb duplication (or thumb polydactyly) are born with an extra thumb on one or both hands. Most will have surgery to fix the problem.

  • Thumb Hypoplasia

    Babies with thumb hypoplasia are born with a thumb that is smaller than normal, or with the thumb missing completely.

  • Toe Walking

    Toe walking is when kids walk on the balls of their feet, with their heels off the ground. Most children stop toe walking on their own by age 2.

  • Torticollis

    Torticollis is a common condition that causes a stiff neck or neck pain that makes it difficult for kids to turn their heads.

  • Ulnar Dysplasia

    Babies with ulnar dysplasia (also called ulnar club hand) are born with a short or missing ulnar bone. This makes the wrist turn out.

  • What Is Collagen?

    Collagen is a protein in the body that helps make bones strong.

  • X-Ray Exam: Ankle

    An ankle X-ray can help find the cause of symptoms such as pain, tenderness, and swelling, or deformity of the ankle joint. It can also detect broken bones or a dislocated joint.

  • X-Ray Exam: Bone Age Study

    A bone age study can help evaluate how a child's skeleton is maturing, which can help doctors diagnose conditions that delay or accelerate growth.

  • X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine

    This X-ray can, among other things, help find the cause of neck, shoulder, upper back, or arm pain. It's commonly done after someone has been in an automobile or other accident.

  • X-Ray Exam: Chest

    A chest X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses a small amount of radiation to take a picture of a person's chest, including the heart, lungs, diaphragm, lymph nodes, upper spine, ribs, collarbone, and breastbone.

  • X-Ray Exam: Elbow

    An elbow X-ray can help find the cause of symptoms such as pain, tenderness, swelling, or a deformity. It can also help to detect broken bones or a dislocated joint.

  • X-Ray Exam: Finger

    Doctors may order a finger X-ray to find the cause of symptoms such as pain, tenderness, or swelling, or to detect broken bones or dislocated joints.

  • X-Ray Exam: Foot

    A foot X-ray can help doctors find the cause pain, tenderness, swelling, or deformities. It also can detect broken bones or dislocated joints.

  • X-Ray Exam: Forearm

    A forearm X-ray can help doctors find the causes of pain, tenderness, swelling, or deformity. It can detect broken bones, and after a broken bone has been set, see if it has healed properly.

  • X-Ray Exam: Hand

    A hand X-ray can help doctors find the cause of pain, tenderness, swelling, and deformity. It also can detect broken bones or dislocated joints.

  • X-Ray Exam: Hip

    A hip X-ray can help find the cause of symptoms such as limping, pain, tenderness, swelling, or deformity in the hip area. It can detect broken bones or a dislocated joint.

  • X-Ray Exam: Knee

    A knee X-ray can help find the causes of pain, tenderness, swelling, or deformity of the knee, and detect broken bones or a dislocated joint.

  • X-Ray Exam: Leg Length

    Some kids may have significant differences in the length of their legs, a condition known as leg length discrepancy. This X-ray exam can help doctors see the exact difference in leg length so they can decide on a treatment.

  • X-Ray Exam: Lower Leg (Tibia and Fibula)

    An X-ray of the tibia and fibula can help find the cause of pain, tenderness, swelling, or deformity of the lower leg. It can detect broken bones, and after a broken bone has been set, help see if it has healed well.

  • X-Ray Exam: Pelvis

    A pelvis X-ray can help find the cause pain, swelling, or deformity in the pelvic, hip, or upper leg regions, and can detect broken bones.

  • X-Ray Exam: Upper Arm (Humerus)

    An upper arm X-ray can help find the cause of symptoms such as pain, tenderness, swelling, or deformity of the upper arm. It can detect a broken bone, and after the bone has been set, show if it has healed well.

  • X-Ray Exam: Upper Leg (Femur)

    A femur X-ray can help find the cause of symptoms such as pain, limp, tenderness, swelling, or deformity of the upper leg. It can detect a broken bone, and after a broken bone has been set, it can help determine whether the bone is in alignment.

  • X-Ray Exam: Wrist

    A wrist X-ray is a safe and painless test that can help find the cause of pain, tenderness, swelling, or show deformities of the wrist joint. It can also detect broken bones or dislocated joints.

  • X-Ray Exams

    An X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses a small amount of radiation to make an image of bones, organs, and other parts of the body.

  • A to Z: Bell's Palsy

    Learn about complications of viral infections and conditions that can affect the face and nervous system.

  • Absence Seizures

    An absence seizure is a type of generalized seizure. During this type of seizure, the person is not aware of what is going on around them.

  • Abusive Head Trauma (Shaken Baby Syndrome)

    Abusive head trauma is the leading cause of death in child abuse cases in the United States. It happens when someone shakes an infant.

  • Ataxia-Telangiectasia

    Ataxia telangiectasia is a rare genetic condition. Children with the condition have uncoordinated movements that get worse over time.

  • Ataxic Cerebral Palsy

    Kids with ataxic CP have trouble with balance. They may walk with their legs farther apart than other kids. And they can have trouble knowing exactly where something is.

  • Bell's Palsy

    Bell's palsy is a temporary weakness or paralysis of the muscles on one side of the face. Though it can be alarming, it typically goes away in a matter of weeks.

  • Benign Rolandic Epilepsy

    Kids with benign rolandic epilepsy have seizures that involve twitching, numbness, or tingling of the face or tongue.

  • Brain and Nervous System Cancers

    These cancers are the most common type of cancer in children. When discovered early, they often can be cured.

  • Burners and Stingers

    Burners (or stingers) are injuries to the nerve network in the shoulder, arm, forearm, hand, and fingers. They're pretty common in sports and usually go away quickly.

  • Cardiofaciocutaneous (CFC) Syndrome

    Cardiofaciocutaneous (CFC) syndrome is a rare genetic condition. It affects the heart, facial features, and skin.

  • Cerebral Palsy (CP)

    Cerebral palsy (CP) affects a child's muscle tone, movement, and more. This article explains causes, diagnosis, treatment, and coping.

  • Cerebral Palsy: Ira's Story (Video)

    Ira has cerebral palsy (CP), but it doesn't interfere with his love of sports or his dream of being a broadcaster. Check out this video.

  • Cerebral Palsy: Parents Talk (Video)

    Get advice from parents raising kids with cerebral palsy. Learn what works, what doesn’t, and what helped these families the most.

  • Cerebral Palsy: Shannon's Story (Video)

    Shannon has cerebral palsy, which limits many abilities. But her wheelchair and her communication device give her the freedom to explore, and a voice to be heard.

  • Chiari I Malformation

    Many kids with this brain condition aren't bothered by it. Those who have symptoms can often find relief with medicines or surgery.

  • Concussions

    Concussions are serious injuries that can be even more serious if kids don't get the time and rest needed to heal them completely.

  • Costello Syndrome

    Costello syndrome is a very rare disorder that affects multiple organ systems. It causes causes problems that affect a child's heart, muscles, bones, skin, brain, and spinal cord.

  • Craniopharyngioma

    A craniopharyngioma is a rare type of benign brain tumor. Most people treated for a craniopharyngioma are cured.

  • Dyskinetic Cerebral Palsy

    Dyskinetic CP, or athetoid CP, is a type of CP. Kids with dyskinetic CP have trouble controlling muscle movement.

  • Epilepsy

    Epilepsy causes electrical signals in the brain to misfire, which can lead to multiple seizures. Anyone can get epilepsy at any age, but most new diagnoses are in kids.

  • Epilepsy Surgery

    Epilepsy surgery is an operation done on the brain to reduce or stop seizures.

  • Fainting

    Fainting is a temporary loss of consciousness. Someone who has fainted will usually recover quickly.

  • Febrile Seizures

    Febrile seizures are full-body convulsions caused by high fevers that affect young kids. Although they can be frightening, they usually stop on their own and don't cause any other health problems.

  • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    If a woman drinks alcohol during her pregnancy, her baby could be born with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), which causes a wide range of physical, behavioral, and learning problems.

  • Focal Aware Seizures

    Focal aware seizures is a seizure that happens while a person is awake and alert and aware of what is going on.

  • Focal Impaired Awareness Seizures

    During a focal impaired awareness aware seizure, the person isn’t aware of what is going on around them.

  • Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures

    During a generalized tonic-clonic seizure, the person loses consciousness and has stiffening and jerking of the muscles. These seizures usually are generalized, starting on both sides of the brain.

  • Gliomas

    A glioma is a type of brain tumor that starts in glial cells, which support the nerve cells of the brain and spinal cord. Doctors treat most gliomas with surgery alone or combinations of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.

  • Guillain-Barré Syndrome

    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a rare medical condition that affects the nerves outside the brain and spinal cord. Luckily, most people who get GBS recover.

  • Headaches

    Headaches affect kids as well as adults. Learn about common causes and when to talk to a doctor.

  • Hydrocephalus

    Often called "water on the brain," hydrocephalus can cause babies' and young children's heads to swell to make room for excess cerebrospinal fluid. Learn how this condition is managed.

  • Infantile Spasms

    Infantile spasms is a seizure disorder in babies. The spasms usually go away by age 4, but many babies go on to have other kinds of epilepsy later.

  • Intractable Epilepsy

    Intractable epilepsy is when a child's seizures can't be controlled by medicines. Doctors may recommend surgery or other treatments for intractable seizures.

  • Is There a Connection Between Vaccines and Autism?

    Find out what the experts have to say.

  • Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy

    Kids with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy have myoclonic seizures that usually begin during the teenage years. Seizures may happen less often in adulthood, but medicine will likely be needed for life.

  • Ketogenic Diet for Epilepsy

    A ketogenic diet is a strict high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet that can reduce, and sometimes stop, seizures.

  • Lead Poisoning

    Long-term exposure to lead can cause serious health problems, particularly in young kids, so it's important to find out whether your child might be at risk for lead exposure.

  • Legius Syndrome

    Legius syndrome is a rare genetic condition. Kids who have it have multiple café-au-lait spots on their skin and might be slower to walk, talk, and reach other milestones than most kids.

  • Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome

    Lennox-Gastaut syndrome is a rare type of epilepsy. Children with the condition have several different kinds of seizures.

  • Lyme Disease

    Lyme disease can affect the skin, joints, nervous system, and other organ systems. If Lyme disease is diagnosed quickly and treated with antibiotics, most people feel better quickly.

  • Medulloblastoma

    Medulloblastoma is a type of brain tumor. Most brain tumors in children are medulloblastoma.

  • Migraine Headaches

    Migraine headaches can cause severe pain and other symptoms. Read about migraine causes, treatments, prevention tips, and lots more.

  • Multiple Sclerosis

    Multiple sclerosis, or MS, is a disease that affects the central nervous system. The symptoms of MS vary depending on which nerves are affected.

  • Myasthenia Gravis

    Myasthenia gravis (or myasthenia) happens when voluntary muscles get weaker. Treatments can help symptoms.

  • Neurocutaneous Syndromes

    Neurocutaneous syndromes are genetic disorders that lead to tumor growth in various parts of the body. Learn how to maximize the quality of life for children with these diseases.

  • Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a genetic condition that causes benign tumors in and under the skin, often with bone, hormone, and other problems. Learn more about how it's diagnosed and treated.

  • Newborn Brachial Plexus Injuries

    During childbirth, a brachial plexus injury can happen if the baby's neck is stretched to one side.

  • Pompe Disease

    Pompe disease is a rare genetic condition that makes muscles get weaker over time.

  • RASopathies

    RASopathies are a group of genetic conditions caused by problems in the RAS pathway, which is one way cells in the body communicate.

  • Sanfilippo Syndrome

    Sanfilippo syndrome is a rare condition in which the body can't break down certain carbohydrates (sugars) in the blood, leading to serious problems in the brain and nervous system.

  • Spastic Cerebral Palsy

    Kids with spastic CP have stiff muscles in the upper part of the body, the lower part, or both.

  • Spina Bifida

    Spina bifida is a birth defect that involves the incomplete development of the spinal cord or its coverings. It's usually detected before a baby is born and treated right away.

  • Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA)

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a condition that causes muscle weakness and atrophy. There's no cure, but therapy and other treatments can help most people who have SMA.

  • Strokes

    This "brain attack" happens when blood flow to the brain stops, even for a second. Often, kids who have a stroke can learn to use their arms and legs and speak again through brain retraining.

  • Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Kids with temporal lobe epilepsy have seizures that start in one of the temporal lobes of the brain. Seizures usually get better with medicine.

  • Tourette Syndrome

    Tourette syndrome is a condition that causes uncontrolled sudden, repetitive muscle movements and sounds known as tics.

  • Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

    Tuberous sclerosis complex is a genetic condition that causes the growth of benign tumors. Symptoms can range from mild to severe.

  • Vagus Nerve Stimulator Therapy for Epilepsy

    Vagus nerve stimulator (VNS) therapy is a treatment for epilepsy. It helps prevent or shorten the length of seizures.

  • VP Shunts

    A VP shunt is a small plastic tube that helps drain extra cerebrospinal fluid from the brain. Most VP shunts are placed to treat hydrocephalus.

  • What Is Acute Flaccid Myelitis?

    Acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) is a rare but serious condition that affects the nervous system.

  • Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common type of childhood cancer. Because it develops and gets worse quickly, prompt treatment is very important. With treatment, most kids are cured.

  • Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) happens when the body makes too many immature white blood cells. Among kids with leukemia, 20% have this type. With treatment, most recover.

  • Brain and Nervous System Cancers

    These cancers are the most common type of cancer in children. When discovered early, they often can be cured.

  • Cardiofaciocutaneous (CFC) Syndrome

    Cardiofaciocutaneous (CFC) syndrome is a rare genetic condition. It affects the heart, facial features, and skin.

  • Chemotherapy

    Chemotherapy (chemo) is treatment with medicines that stop the growth of cancer cells.

  • Childhood Cancer

    Different kinds of childhood cancer have different signs, symptoms, treatments, and outcomes. But today, most kids with cancer get better.

  • Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML)

    While this type of blood cancer is more common in adults, it affects children, too. Thanks to advances in therapy, most kids with CML can be cured.

  • Costello Syndrome

    Costello syndrome is a very rare disorder that affects multiple organ systems. It causes causes problems that affect a child's heart, muscles, bones, skin, brain, and spinal cord.

  • Craniopharyngioma

    A craniopharyngioma is a rare type of benign brain tumor. Most people treated for a craniopharyngioma are cured.

  • Effects of Cancer Treatment on Fertility

    While some cancer treatments have little to no effect on reproductive health, others are more likely cause temporary or permanent infertility.

  • Ewing Sarcoma

    This type of cancer mainly develops in the arms, legs, ribs, spinal column, and pelvis. Early diagnosis and treatment mean most kids have a good chance of recovery.

  • Germ Cell Tumors

    Germ cell tumors happen when reproductive cells in an unborn baby don't develop as they should.

  • Gliomas

    A glioma is a type of brain tumor that starts in glial cells, which support the nerve cells of the brain and spinal cord. Doctors treat most gliomas with surgery alone or combinations of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.

  • Hemolytic Anemia

    Hemolytic anemia is a type of anemia that happens when red blood cells break down faster than the body can make them.

  • Hepatoblastoma

    Hepatoblastoma is a rare type of cancer that affects the liver but rarely spreads beyond it. Most cases are in children younger than 3.

  • Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a type of liver cancer. It's treated by a health care team of specialists in many areas.

  • Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Hodgkin lymphoma is a type of cancer that affects the lymphatic system. Most kids and teens who get Hodgkin lymphoma get better.

  • Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia (JMML)

    Learn about this rare type of cancer, which usually affects kids under 4 years old.

  • Legius Syndrome

    Legius syndrome is a rare genetic condition. Kids who have it have multiple café-au-lait spots on their skin and might be slower to walk, talk, and reach other milestones than most kids.

  • Leukemia

    Leukemia refers to cancers of the white blood cells. With the proper treatment, the outlook for kids with leukemia is quite good.

  • Liver Tumors

    Tumors happen when cells form a mass or growth. Liver tumors can be benign (not cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

  • Lymphoma

    Lymphoma is cancer that begins in the body's lymphatic tissue. It's a common type of cancer in children, but most recover from it.

  • Medulloblastoma

    Medulloblastoma is a type of brain tumor. Most brain tumors in children are medulloblastoma.

  • Melanoma

    Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer. Find out how to lower your family's risk of getting melanoma and how doctors treat it.

  • MIBG Treatment for Neuroblastoma

    MIBG is a molecule that doctors combine with low-dose radioactive iodine to look for neuroblastoma. Given with higher-dose radioactive iodine, it can treat this cancer.

  • Neuroblastoma

    Learn about neuroblastoma, a rare type of childhood cancer that develops in infants and young children.

  • Neurocutaneous Syndromes

    Neurocutaneous syndromes are genetic disorders that lead to tumor growth in various parts of the body. Learn how to maximize the quality of life for children with these diseases.

  • Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a genetic condition that causes benign tumors in and under the skin, often with bone, hormone, and other problems. Learn more about how it's diagnosed and treated.

  • Neutropenia

    Certain cancers, or cancer treatment, can weaken the immune system, requiring a child to stay home to avoid exposure to germs. Here are ways to help your child make the best of it.

  • Osteosarcoma

    Osteosarcoma is the most common type of bone cancer. Boys are more likely to have osteosarcoma than girls, and most cases of osteosarcoma involve the knee.

  • Proton Therapy for Cancer

    Proton therapy is an advanced type of radiation therapy. It's an effective treatment for many childhood cancers.

  • Radiation Therapy

    Radiation therapy, also called radiotherapy, irradiation, or X-ray therapy, is one of the most common forms of cancer treatment.

  • Radioembolization (TARE-Y90) for Liver Tumors

    Radioembolization is a procedure used to treat some kinds of liver tumors. A radioactive material works on the tumor, not the healthy tissue around it.

  • RASopathies

    RASopathies are a group of genetic conditions caused by problems in the RAS pathway, which is one way cells in the body communicate.

  • Retinoblastoma

    Retinoblastoma is a childhood cancer that affects the retina, the area of the eye responsible for sensing light and sending nerve signals to the brain.

  • Rhabdoid Tumor of the Liver

    A rhabdoid tumor of the liver is a cancer that often spreads quickly to other parts of the body. Most of these very rare tumors happen in babies and toddlers.

  • Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS)

    Rhabdomyosarcoma is a cancerous tumor that shows up in the body's soft tissues. With early diagnosis and timely treatment, most kids make a full recovery.

  • Side Effects of Chemotherapy and Radiation

    Side effects of cancer treatment can include flu-like symptoms, hair loss, and blood clotting problems. After treatment ends, most side effects go away.

  • Sinonasal Tumors

    A sinonasal tumor is a growth in the nose, the space behind the nose, or in the sinuses. The tumors can be benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancer).

  • Skull Base Surgery

    Skull base surgery is done to remove tumors and other growths that appear at the bottom of the skull.

  • Stem Cell Transplants

    Stem cells help rebuild a weakened immune system. Stem cell transplants are effective treatments for a wide range of diseases, including cancer.

  • Testicular Cancer

    Testicular cancer is uncommon in boys. Most cases are in young and middle-aged men. It responds well to treatment, especially when it’s found early.

  • Thrombocytopenia

    Thrombocytopenia is when someone has too few platelets in their bloodstream. Many things can cause it and most can be treated.

  • Thyroid Cancer

    Thyroid cancer is uncommon in kids. Most who develop it do very well when the cancer is found and treated early.

  • Undifferentiated Embryonal Sarcoma of the Liver (UESL)

    Undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver (UESL) is a rare kind of liver cancer that happens mostly in children.

  • Words to Know: Transplants

    Easy-to-understand definitions of some key transplant terms.

  • Antegrade Continence Enema (ACE)

    An antegrade continence enema, or ACE, is a different way to give an enema. Enemas can help someone poop if they become constipated or have another problem moving their bowels.

  • Appendectomy

    It's important to understand the ins and outs of an appendectomy so you know what to expect if your child has this procedure.

  • Biliary Atresia

    Biliary atresia is when a newborn has blocked bile ducts in the liver. If a baby’s jaundice doesn’t improve by 2 weeks of age, doctors might suspect the condition.

  • Celiac Disease

    Celiac disease happens when someone has a food intolerance to gluten. Here's how to manage symptoms and prevent damage to the intestines.

  • Chylous Ascites

    Chylous ascites is when chyle collects in the belly. Depending on what's causing it, doctors can treat chylous ascites and often cure it.

  • Chyluria

    Chyluria is when there is chyle in the pee. Depending on what's causing it, chyluria can be treated and often can be cured.

  • Constipation

    Constipation is a very common problem among kids, and it usually occurs because a child's diet doesn't include enough fluids and fiber. In most cases, simple changes can help kids go.

  • Crohn's Disease

    Crohn's disease is a chronic condition that causes parts of the bowel to get red and swollen. The goal of treatment is to relieve symptoms, prevent other problems, and avoid flare-ups.

  • Diarrhea

    Most kids battle diarrhea from time to time, so it's important to know what to do to relieve and even prevent it.

  • Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    Eosinophilic esophagitis is inflammation of the esophagus. Most people with the condition improve with treatment.

  • Epigastric Hernias

    An epigastric hernia is when part of the intestines pushes through the abdominal muscles between the belly button and the chest. Many are small, cause no symptoms, and don't need treatment.

  • Fetal Abdominal Cyst

    A fetal abdominal cyst is a bubble of fluid in a balloon-like bag in the belly of an unborn baby.

  • Functional Abdominal Pain

    Functional abdominal pain is lasting belly pain that doesn't respond to treatment. Many school-age kids have it at some point, but get better without lasting problems.

  • Galactosemia

    Some babies are born with the metabolic disorder glactosemia. They must drink soy-based formula instead of breast milk or a cow's milk-based formula.

  • Gastroesophageal Reflux

    When symptoms of heartburn or acid indigestion happen a lot, it could be gastroesophageal reflux (GER). And it can be a problem for kids - even newborns.

  • Gastroschisis

    Gastroschisis is when a baby is born with the intestines, and sometimes other organs, sticking out through a hole in the belly wall near the umbilical cord.

  • Hernias

    Hernias are fairly common in kids, and hernia repair is one of the most common pediatric surgeries.

  • Hirschsprung Disease

    Children with Hirschsprung disease aren't able to pass a bowel movement, or do so with difficulty. Treatment almost always requires surgery.

  • Immunizations and IBD

    Vaccines are safe to give to kids and teens with IBD and won't make their symptoms worse. Here are the ones they need.

  • Imperforate Anus

    In an imperforate anus, the anal sphincter (a group of muscles in the anus that controls the release of poop) usually forms in the right place but without the normal opening.

  • Indigestion

    Indigestion is an upset stomach that most often happens because someone eats too much or too fast, or has foods that don't agree with them.

  • Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) refers to two chronic diseases that cause intestinal inflammation: ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Although they have features in common, there are some important differences.

  • Inguinal Hernias

    An inguinal hernia happens when part of the intestines pushes through an opening in the lower part of the abdomen. Doctors fix these hernias with surgery.

  • Intestinal Malrotation

    Malrotation is a type of obstruction caused by abnormal development of the intestines while a fetus is in the womb. Find out more about this condition and the complications it can cause.

  • Intussusception

    Intussusception is the most common cause of bowel blockages in very young children. Quick treatment can help them recover without lasting problems.

  • Lactose Intolerance

    Many kids have lactose intolerance - trouble digesting lactose, the main sugar in milk and milk products - which can cause cramps, diarrhea, and gas.

  • Laryngomalacia

    Laryngomalacia is a common cause of noisy breathing in infants.

  • Nasogastric Tube (NG Tube)

    An NG tube goes through the nose, down the throat, and into the stomach to deliver formula or medicine.

  • Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    Necrotizing enterocolitis is an intestinal disease that usually affects preemies. Medicines and therapy can help babies with NEC.

  • Nutrition Therapy and Crohn's Disease

    Nutrition therapy is an alternative to medicines that doctors use to ease the symptoms of Crohn's disease. It can help improve nutrition and growth, ease inflammation, and heal the gastrointestinal tract.

  • Pancreatitis

    Pancreatitis is sometimes mistaken for a stomach virus because symptoms can include fever, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Symptoms usually get better on their own, but sometimes treatment is needed.

  • Peptic Ulcers

    Bacteria cause most peptic ulcers. Usually, they can be cured.

  • Protein-Losing Enteropathy

    Protein-losing enteropathy is when too much protein leaks into the intestines, often because of a chronic health condition. The condition usually can be treated.

  • Pyloric Stenosis

    Pyloric stenosis can make a baby vomit forcefully and often. It can lead to serious problems like dehydration, and needs medical treatment right away.

  • Quick Summary: Appendectomy (Laparoscopic)

    An appendectomy is surgery to remove the appendix. Surgeons remove the appendix when it gets blocked and becomes infected. A laparoscopic appendectomy lets surgeons remove the appendix with the help of a tiny video camera called a laparoscope.

  • Quick Summary: Treating Gastroschisis (Gastroschisis Silo)

    Gastroschisis is when a baby is born with the intestines, and sometimes other organs, sticking out through a hole in the belly wall near the umbilical cord. A gastroschisis silo allow the intestines to slowly move into the belly.

  • Quick Summary: Treating Indirect Inguinal Hernia

    An inguinal hernia happens when part of the intestines slips into the groin (where the belly meets the upper leg) instead of staying in the belly as it should. Doctors fix inguinal (IN-gwuh-nul) hernias with surgery.

  • Short Bowel Syndrome

    Short bowel syndrome happens when the small intestine is too short to fully absorb nutrients as it should. Kids with the condition often need to get nutrition through a special IV into a vein.

  • Soiling (Encopresis)

    If your child has bowel movements in places other than the toilet, you know how frustrating it can be. Many kids who soil beyond the years of toilet teaching have a condition known as encopresis.

  • Stomachaches

    Kids can have stomach pain for lots of reasons - not all of them related to the digestive system. Here are some clues about what could be going on.

  • Tapeworm

    Tapeworms are usually more upsetting to think about than to deal with. Tapeworm infections are rare in the United States, and they're usually easy to treat.

  • Transition of Care: Crohn's Disease

    Most teens with Crohn's disease should transition to an adult health care provider when they're between 18 and 21 years old. Here's how parents can help them do that.

  • Transition of Care: Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Most teens with IBD should transition to an adult health care provider when they're between 18 and 21 years old. Here's how parents can help them do that.

  • Transition of Care: Ulcerative Colitis

    Most teens with ulcerative colitis should transition to an adult health care provider when they're between 18 and 21 years old. Here's how parents can help them do that.

  • Ulcerative Colitis

    Ulcerative colitis is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that happens only in the colon. It causes the inner lining of the colon to get red and swollen with sores called ulcers.

  • Umbilical Hernias

    An umbilical hernia shows up as a bump under the belly button. If a hernia doesn't go away by age 4 or 5 or causes problems, doctors may recommend surgery.

  • When Your Child Needs a Liver Transplant

    If your child needs a liver transplant, you're probably feeling lots of emotions. Fortunately, most kids who have liver transplants go on to live normal, healthy lives.

  • X-Ray Exam: Upper Gastrointestinal Tract (Upper GI)

    An upper GI X-ray can help find the cause of swallowing problems, unexplained vomiting, abdominal discomfort, severe indigestion, ulcers, reflux, hiatal hernia, or blockages.

  • A to Z: Bullous Myringitis

    Learn about bullous myringitis, an infection of the tympanic membrane (eardrum).

  • Adenoids and Adenoidectomy

    Enlarged adenoids are normal some kids, but others need surgery. Often, tonsils and adenoids are removed at the same time.

  • Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) Test

    An auditory brainstem response (ABR) test is a safe and painless test that gives health care providers information about possible hearing loss.

  • Auditory Processing Disorder

    Kids with APD can't understand what they hear in the same way other kids do. That's because their ears and brain don't fully coordinate. But early diagnosis and a variety of strategies can help them.

  • Balance Disorders

    Most kids stumble and fall from time to time, but a child who often loses their balance might have a balance disorder.

  • Cholesteatoma

    A cholesteatoma is a growth behind the eardrum that can damage the bones of the middle ear. Treating it can help prevent hearing loss.

  • Chronic Hoarseness

    Misuse of the vocal cords — caused by such things as repetitive screaming, yelling, or using the voice in an unnatural way — can lead to chronic hoarseness. Learn how to get the voice back into perfect pitch.

  • Cleft Lip

    A cleft lip is when a baby's lip doesn't form properly during pregnancy. Most kids can have surgery to repair one early in life.

  • Cleft Palate

    A cleft palate is when a baby is born with a cleft (gap) in the roof of the mouth. Most kids can have surgery to repair them early in life.

  • Cleft Palate With Cleft Lip

    A cleft palate with a cleft lip is when a baby's lip and palate (roof of mouth) don't form properly during pregnancy. Most kids with cleft lip and palate are treated successfully with no lasting problems.

  • Cochlear Implants

    Cochlear implant can help many kids with severe hearing loss. Find out how they work and who can get them.

  • Ear Anomalies

    An ear anomaly is when the size or shape of the outer, middle, or inner ear is different than usual. It can change how the ear looks and how a child hears.

  • Ear Injuries

    Ear injuries not only can affect a child's hearing, but sense of balance too. That's because our ears also help keep us steady on our feet.

  • Ear Tube Surgery

    Many kids get middle ear infections (otitis media). Doctors may suggest ear tube surgery for those with multiple infections or a hearing loss or speech delay.

  • Eardrum Injuries

    A "popped" eardrum is more than just painful - it can sometimes lead to hearing loss. Learn about ruptured eardrums and how to prevent them.

  • Ears

    Hearing may be the ears' main job, but it's not all they do. Learn all about the ears in this Body Basics article.

  • Hearing Aids

    Hearing aids are the main treatment for a type of hearing loss called sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). They work by making sounds louder.

  • Hearing Loss

    Kids who have hearing loss, or hearing impairment, have trouble hearing or understanding some or all sounds. It’s best to catch hearing problems right away, because treatment is more successful if it starts early.

  • Hearing Loss Factsheet (for Schools)

    What teachers should know about hearing impairments, and how to help students who have one succeed in school.

  • Hearing Tests

    Hearing problems can be overcome if they're caught early, so it's important to get your child's hearing screened early and checked regularly.

  • How to Give Your Child Ear Drops

    Tips for parents on getting drops into a child's ear.

  • Immunizations and Cochlear Implants

    Children with cochlear implants have a higher risk than other kids of getting some types of bacterial meningitis. Vaccines can help protect them.

  • Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma

    A juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a growth in the area behind the nose. They're benign but can damage nerves and bones and block ear and sinus drainage. Almost all JNAs are in teenage boys.

  • Laryngomalacia

    Laryngomalacia is a common cause of noisy breathing in infants.

  • Nasopharyngoscopy

    A nasopharyngoscopy is an exam doctors do to view the back of the throat.

  • Orofacial Clefts

    A cleft is when tissues of the mouth or lip don't form properly when a baby is developing in the womb. The good news is that orofacial clefts are treatable.

  • Ototoxicity (Ear Poisoning)

    Ototoxicity is when a person develops hearing or balance problems. Learn about this side effect of taking certain medicines.

  • Peritonsillar Abscess

    Older kids and teens with tonsilitis sometimes develop this painful abscess, a pus-filled tissue at the back of the mouth.

  • Quick Summary: Cochlear Implant

    A cochlear implant is a surgically placed device that helps a person with severe hearing loss hear sounds. Doctors consider cochlear implants for children under 12 months of age with profound hearing loss in both ears. Older children with serious hearing loss also may get cochlear implants.

  • Quick Summary: Ear Tube Surgery (Myringotomy)

    A doctor might suggest ear tube surgery if a child gets many ear infections that don't clear up easily or the ear infections seem to be causing hearing loss or speech delay. Ear tube surgery can drain fluid from the middle ear, prevent future infections, and help the child hear properly again.

  • Sinonasal Tumors

    A sinonasal tumor is a growth in the nose, the space behind the nose, or in the sinuses. The tumors can be benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancer).

  • Speech-Language Therapy

    Working with a certified speech-language pathologist can help a child with speech or language difficulties.

  • Speech-Language Therapy for Children With Cleft Palate

    Speech-language pathologists help kids with speech problems related to a cleft palate. Find out what they do.

  • Stuttering

    Many young kids go through a stage when they stutter. Stuttering usually goes away on its own but in some cases lasts longer.

  • Submucous Cleft Palate

    In a submucous cleft palate, the muscles of the palate don't form properly, but the tissue that lines the roof of the mouth does. This makes these clefts harder to see.

  • Tonsillectomy

    A tonsillectomy is surgery to remove the tonsils. It's one of the most common surgeries kids and teens get. Find out more.

  • Tympanoplasty

    Tympanoplasty is a surgery to repair a hole in the eardrum that doesn’t close on its own. It can improve hearing and prevent water from getting into the middle ear.

  • Velopharyngeal Dysfunction

    When sound and air leaks into the nasal cavity during speech, this is called velopharyngeal dysfunction (VPD).

  • Vocal Cord Dysfunction

    Vocal cord dysfunction means that the vocal cords partially close during breathing, so air has more trouble getting through.

  • A to Z: Failure to Thrive

    Failure to thrive refers to a child's inability to gain weight and grow as expected for kids of the same age and gender. Most diagnoses are made in the first few years of life.

  • Acanthosis Nigricans

    Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is a condition that causes the skin to thicken and darken in places. AN is not harmful or contagious, but can be a sign of certain other medical conditions.

  • Adrenal Insufficiency

    Adrenal insufficiency is a condition that happens when the adrenal glands do not work as they should.

  • Can Diabetes Be Prevented?

    Parents want to protect their kids from everything, which is virtually impossible, of course. But can you prevent your child from getting diabetes?

  • Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) affects the adrenal glands, which make important hormones. Symptoms depend on a child's age, sex, and which hormones the adrenal glands make too little or too much of.

  • Congenital Hypothyroidism

    Some babies are born with a thyroid gland that didn't develop correctly or doesn't work as it should. This is called congenital hypothyroidism.

  • Craniopharyngioma

    A craniopharyngioma is a rare type of benign brain tumor. Most people treated for a craniopharyngioma are cured.

  • Cushing Syndrome

    Cushing syndrome can happen when there are too many glucocorticoid hormones in the body.

  • Delayed Puberty

    Puberty usually begins in girls 8-14, and in boys 9-15. If kids pass this normal age range without showing any signs of body changes, it's called delayed puberty.

  • Diabetes To-Go Kit

    A diabetes to-go kit holds the supplies your child needs for daily and emergency care. Keep it filled and ready, so you have everything you need at a moment’s notice.

  • Diabetic Ketoacidosis

    Diabetic ketoacidosis happens when the body uses fat for energy instead of sugar. People with diabetes can get it if their blood sugar levels are too high for too long and they don’t have enough insulin in their system.

  • Failure to Thrive

    Most kids grow well but some have ”failure to thrive.” This means they don't gain weight as expected and may not grow as tall as they should.

  • Glucagon and Diabetes

    Sometimes, if someone with diabetes has very low blood sugar, they need a dose of glucagon to get their blood sugar back to a healthy range.

  • Goiters and Thyroid Nodules

    An enlarged thyroid gland is a lump that can be felt under the skin at the front of the neck. When it's big enough to see easily, it's called a goiter. A thyroid nodule is a lump or enlarged area in the thyroid gland.

  • Growth Hormone Deficiency

    When the body doesn't make enough growth hormone to allow a child to grow at a normal pace, it's called growth hormone deficiency. Learn how doctors check for and treat this problem.

  • Hyperthyroidism and Graves’ Disease

    Hyperthyroidism happens when the thyroid gland sends too much thyroid hormone into the blood. The most common cause of hyperthyroidism is Graves' disease.

  • Hypothyroidism and Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis

    An underactive thyroid makes too little thyroid hormone, causing hypothyroidism. Hashimoto's thyroiditis, which causes most cases of hypothyroidism in kids and teens, is a condition in which the immune system attacks the thyroid.

  • Insulin Resistance

    Insulin resistance happens when the body does not respond properly to insulin. It can can raise a child's risk for type 2 diabetes and other health problems.

  • Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR)

    Intrauterine growth restriction is when a baby in the womb doesn't grow at the expected rate during the pregnancy. Women with IUGR should eat a healthy diet; get enough sleep; and avoid alcohol, drugs, and tobacco.

  • Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma

    A juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a growth in the area behind the nose. They're benign but can damage nerves and bones and block ear and sinus drainage. Almost all JNAs are in teenage boys.

  • Klinefelter Syndrome

    Boys with this condition have an extra "X" chromosome that prevents them from developing normally during puberty. But hormone treatments, counseling, and other therapies can help.

  • Metabolic Syndrome

    Metabolic syndrome is a group of health problems that put kids at risk for heart disease and diabetes. With lifestyle changes, many kids improve their health and reduce their risk of disease.

  • Pancreatitis

    Pancreatitis is sometimes mistaken for a stomach virus because symptoms can include fever, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Symptoms usually get better on their own, but sometimes treatment is needed.

  • Thyroid Cancer

    Thyroid cancer is uncommon in kids. Most who develop it do very well when the cancer is found and treated early.

  • Thyroid Disease

    The thyroid gland makes the hormones that help control metabolism and growth. A thyroid that isn't working properly can cause thyroid disease.

  • Thyroid Tests

    Thyroid blood tests check thyroid function and can help doctors diagnose thyroid disorders such as hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism.

  • Transition of Care: Diabetes

    Most teens with diabetes should transition to an adult health care provider when they're between 18 and 21 years old. Here's how parents can help them do that.

  • Treating Type 1 Diabetes

    For kids diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, it's important to create a diabetes management plan to help them manage the condition and stay healthy and active.

  • Treating Type 2 Diabetes

    Kids who are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes will need a diabetes management plan to help them manage the condition and stay healthy and active.

  • What Is Gestational Diabetes?

    Find out what the experts have to say.

  • What Is Type 1 Diabetes?

    In type 1 diabetes, the body can’t use glucose for energy, making blood sugar levels get too high. People with diabetes need insulin shots or an insulin pump.

  • What Is Type 2 Diabetes?

    Learning what you can about type 2 diabetes will let you help your child manage and live with the disease. Here are the basics.

  • Amblyopia

    Amblyopia interferes with the way the eye and the brain work together. The result is poor vision. Treatment may involve glasses, patches, eye drops, or surgery.

  • Black Eyes

    A black eye is bruising around the eyes that can look purple, black, or dark blue. Usually, they get better in a week or so.

  • Congenital Cataracts

    A baby with congenital cataracts has clouding in one or both eyes. Doctors do surgery to treat them.

  • Eyes

    The eyes are small compared with most of the body's other organs, but their structure is incredibly complex. Learn more about eyes, vision, and common problems with both.

  • Farsightedness (Hyperopia)

    Farsightedness (hyperopia) is a vision problem that makes it hard to see nearby objects clearly.

  • First Aid: Eye Injuries

    Some eye injuries can be treated at home, while others require a visit to the doctor or emergency room. Find out what to do if your child has eye pain.

  • First Aid: Pinkeye

    Pinkeye is an inflammation of the white part of the eye and the inner eyelids. Although some kinds of pinkeye go away on their own, others require treatment.

  • Glaucoma

    Glaucoma damages the optic nerve. The condition gets worse over time and leads to a loss of vision if not treated.

  • Nearsightedness (Myopia)

    Nearsightedness (myopia) is a vision problem that makes it hard to see distant objects clearly.

  • Pinkeye (Conjunctivitis)

    Pinkeye, or conjunctivitis, is the most common eye infection affecting kids. Learn more about pinkeye and how to prevent it from spreading.

  • Preventing Eye Injuries

    Eye injuries in kids can lead to serious vision problems, even blindness. Wearing protective eyewear can prevent most eye injuries.

  • Ptosis

    Ptosis is drooping of the upper eyelid. Many things can cause it.

  • Quick Summary: Treating Tear-Duct Blockage (Tear Duct Massage)

    Blocked tear ducts are a fairly common problem in infants. If your child has a blocked tear duct, your doctor may show you how to massage the eye several times a day at home for a few months. Massaging can help open the blockage.

  • Quick Summary: Treating Tear-Duct Blockage (Tear Duct Probe)

    Blocked tear ducts are a fairly common problem in infants. A common procedure called a tear duct probe can open the blockage.

  • Retinitis Pigmentosa

    Retinitis pigmentosa is a genetic condition that leads to vision loss over time.

  • Retinoblastoma

    Retinoblastoma is a childhood cancer that affects the retina, the area of the eye responsible for sensing light and sending nerve signals to the brain.

  • Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP)

    Retinopathy of prematurity, which can happen in premature babies, causes abnormal blood vessel growth in the retina. Some children will need surgery to prevent vision loss or blindness.

  • Strabismus

    Strabismus causes eyes to wander or cross. Treatment may include glasses, patches, eye drops, or surgery.

  • Subconjunctival Hemorrhage

    A subconjunctival hemorrhage is a red spot on the white of the eye. It can look scary, but is usually harmless, doesn’t hurt, and won’t affect vision.

  • Tear-Duct Blockage

    Blocked tear ducts are a fairly common problem in infants. The earlier they're discovered, the less likely it is that infection will result or surgery will be necessary.

  • Your Child's Vision

    It's important for kids to have their eyes examined regularly, as many vision problems and eye diseases can be detected and treated early.

  • 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (DiGeorge Syndrome)

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome (also called DiGeorge Syndrome) is a genetic condition that can cause a variety of physical and behavioral problems.

  • Albinism

    Humans, animals, and even plants can have albinism, a condition that gives people a kind of pale appearance. Find out more about albinism here.

  • Ataxia-Telangiectasia

    Ataxia telangiectasia is a rare genetic condition. Children with the condition have uncoordinated movements that get worse over time.

  • Beta Thalassemia

    Beta thalassemia is a blood disorder in which the body has a problem producing beta globin, a component of hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that transports oxygen throughout the body.

  • Birth Defects

    Some birth defects are minor and cause no problems. Others can be serious and require lifelong treatment.

  • Cardiofaciocutaneous (CFC) Syndrome

    Cardiofaciocutaneous (CFC) syndrome is a rare genetic condition. It affects the heart, facial features, and skin.

  • Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease (CMT)

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is a neurological disorder. It causes muscle weakness and numbness, most commonly in the arms and legs.

  • CLOVES Syndrome

    CLOVES syndrome is a very rare genetic disorder that causes vascular, skin, spinal, and bone or joint abnormalities.

  • Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) affects the adrenal glands, which make important hormones. Symptoms depend on a child's age, sex, and which hormones the adrenal glands make too little or too much of.

  • Congenital Hypothyroidism

    Some babies are born with a thyroid gland that didn't develop correctly or doesn't work as it should. This is called congenital hypothyroidism.

  • Costello Syndrome

    Costello syndrome is a very rare disorder that affects multiple organ systems. It causes causes problems that affect a child's heart, muscles, bones, skin, brain, and spinal cord.

  • Down Syndrome

    In Down syndrome, an extra chromosome causes delays in the way a child develops, mentally and physically. But many resources are available to help kids who have it and their families.

  • Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is the most common form of muscular dystrophy. It gradually makes the body's muscles weaker.

  • Dwarfism

    Dwarfism is a condition that is characterized by short stature. Many of the possible complications of dwarfism are treatable, and people of short stature lead healthy, active lives.

  • Epigenetics

    Epigenetics - the idea that environmental factors can change the health not only of the people who are exposed to them, but also the health of their descendants - is something we'll be hearing more about.

  • G6PD Deficiency

    G6PD deficiency an inherited condition in which someone doesn't have enough of the enzyme G6PD, which protects red blood cells.

  • Galactosemia

    Some babies are born with the metabolic disorder glactosemia. They must drink soy-based formula instead of breast milk or a cow's milk-based formula.

  • Gene Changes (Mutations)

    A gene mutation is a change in one or more genes. Some mutations can lead to genetic disorders or illnesses.

  • Genetic Counseling

    Genetic counseling is a way for people to understand how genetic illnesses can affect them and their family.

  • Genetic Testing

    Advances in genetic testing help doctors diagnose and treat certain illnesses. The type of test done depends on which condition a doctor checks for.

  • Genetics

    Genetics is the study of genes, which carry information that gets passed from one generation to the next.

  • Goiters and Thyroid Nodules

    An enlarged thyroid gland is a lump that can be felt under the skin at the front of the neck. When it's big enough to see easily, it's called a goiter. A thyroid nodule is a lump or enlarged area in the thyroid gland.

  • Hemophilia

    Hemophilia is a rare bleeding disorder that prevents the blood from clotting properly. With modern treatment, most kids who have it can lead full, healthy lives.

  • Hemophilia: Handling Bleeds

    Kids with hemophilia can bleed easily or longer than normal. So it's important for parents to know how to handle bleeding when it happens.

  • Hereditary Hemochromatosis

    This genetic disease causes the body to store too much iron. Learn more about hemochromatosis.

  • Hyperthyroidism and Graves’ Disease

    Hyperthyroidism happens when the thyroid gland sends too much thyroid hormone into the blood. The most common cause of hyperthyroidism is Graves' disease.

  • Hypothyroidism and Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis

    An underactive thyroid makes too little thyroid hormone, causing hypothyroidism. Hashimoto's thyroiditis, which causes most cases of hypothyroidism in kids and teens, is a condition in which the immune system attacks the thyroid.

  • If Your Baby Has a Birth Defect

    If your child has a birth defect, you don't have to go it alone - many people and resources are available to help you.

  • Klinefelter Syndrome

    Boys with this condition have an extra "X" chromosome that prevents them from developing normally during puberty. But hormone treatments, counseling, and other therapies can help.

  • Legius Syndrome

    Legius syndrome is a rare genetic condition. Kids who have it have multiple café-au-lait spots on their skin and might be slower to walk, talk, and reach other milestones than most kids.

  • Maple Syrup Urine Disease

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare metabolic disorder that some babies are born with.

  • Marfan Syndrome

    Marfan syndrome affects the body's connective tissue and can cause problems in the eyes, joints, and heart. Even though the disease has no cure, doctors can successfully treat just about all of its symptoms.

  • Muscular Dystrophy

    Muscular dystrophy is a disorder that weakens a person's muscles over time. People who have the disease can gradually lose the ability to do everyday tasks.

  • Neurocutaneous Syndromes

    Neurocutaneous syndromes are genetic disorders that lead to tumor growth in various parts of the body. Learn how to maximize the quality of life for children with these diseases.

  • Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a genetic condition that causes benign tumors in and under the skin, often with bone, hormone, and other problems. Learn more about how it's diagnosed and treated.

  • Newborn Screening Tests

    Newborn screening tests look for health conditions that aren't apparent at birth. Find out which tests are done.

  • Noonan Syndrome

    Noonan syndrome is a condition that some babies are born with. It causes changes in the face and chest, and usually includes heart problems.

  • Phenylketonuria (PKU)

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a metabolic disorder caused by a defect in the enzyme that breaks down an amino acid. PKU is treatable when it is found early.

  • Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency

    Pyruvate kinase deficiency is a condition that can lead to anemia. Most people with the condition lead a healthy life.

  • RASopathies

    RASopathies are a group of genetic conditions caused by problems in the RAS pathway, which is one way cells in the body communicate.

  • Sanfilippo Syndrome

    Sanfilippo syndrome is a rare condition in which the body can't break down certain carbohydrates (sugars) in the blood, leading to serious problems in the brain and nervous system.

  • Sickle Cell Trait

    Children who inherit one sickle cell gene have sickle cell trait. They usually don't get symptoms of sickle cell disease.

  • Tay-Sachs Disease

    A baby with Tay-Sachs disease is born without an important enzyme, so fatty proteins build up in the brain, hurting the baby's sight, hearing, movement, and mental development.

  • Thyroid Disease

    The thyroid gland makes the hormones that help control metabolism and growth. A thyroid that isn't working properly can cause thyroid disease.

  • Thyroid Tests

    Thyroid blood tests check thyroid function and can help doctors diagnose thyroid disorders such as hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism.

  • Treacher Collins Syndrome

    Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) refers to a group of facial features that some babies are born with. TCS causes distinctive abnormalities of the head and face, but doesn't affect intelligence or lifespan.

  • Triple X Syndrome

    Triple X syndrome (also known as XXX syndrome, 47,XXX, and trisomy X) is a genetic condition found in girls only. Girls who have it may be taller than average, but the symptoms can vary greatly.

  • Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

    Tuberous sclerosis complex is a genetic condition that causes the growth of benign tumors. Symptoms can range from mild to severe.

  • Turner Syndrome

    Girls with Turner syndrome, a genetic condition, usually are shorter than average and infertile due to early loss of ovarian function. Early diagnosis and treatments can help most of them.

  • XYY Syndrome

    XYY syndrome is a rare genetic condition that affects only males. Boys who have it may be taller than average, but the symptoms can vary greatly.

  • A to Z: Beta Thalassemia

    Learn about genetic disorders and diseases and conditions that affect the blood.

  • Alpha Thalassemia

    Alpha thalassemia is a blood disorder in which the body has a problem producing alpha globin, a component of hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that transports oxygen throughout the body.

  • Anemia

    Anemia happens when there aren't enough healthy red blood cells in the body. It can be caused by many things, including dietary problems, medical treatments, and inherited conditions.

  • Aortic Aneurysm

    An aortic aneurysm is weak spot in the large artery that carries blood from the heart (the aorta). Kids who have one need regular checkups and care to prevent emergencies.

  • Aortic Stenosis

    Aortic stenosis means the aortic valve is too small, narrow, or stiff. Many people have no symptoms, but kids with more severe cases will need surgery so that blood flows properly through the body.

  • Aplastic Anemia

    Aplastic anemia happens when the body can't make enough blood cells. A person can develop anemia, infections, and bleeding. Treatments can help with most kinds of aplastic anemia.

  • Arrhythmia (Abnormal Heartbeat)

    An arrhythmia is an abnormal heartbeat usually caused by an electrical "short circuit" in the heart. Many are minor and not a health threat, but some can indicate a more serious problem.

  • Arteriovenous Malformations

    An arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is an abnormal connection between an artery and a vein. Large AVMs or multiple AVMs usually needs medical treatment.

  • Atrial Septal Defect (ASD)

    Atrial septal defect (ASD) — also known as a "hole in the heart" — is a type of congenital heart defect. Most ASDs are diagnosed and treated successfully.

  • Beta Thalassemia

    Beta thalassemia is a blood disorder in which the body has a problem producing beta globin, a component of hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that transports oxygen throughout the body.

  • Blood Types

    Categorizing blood according to type helps prevent reactions when someone gets a blood transfusion. Find out how blood types work.

  • Body Basics: The Heart (Slideshow)

    Learn how this amazing muscle pumps blood throughout the body.

  • Cardiac Catheterization

    This minimally invasive procedure helps doctors perform diagnostic tests on the heart and even treat some heart conditions.

  • Cardiac Stents

    Cardiac stents are very small mesh wire tubes that hold blood vessels open so that blood can flow through the vessels normally. Find out about the procedure to place a stent.

  • Cardiomyopathy

    Cardiomyopathy is when the heart muscle becomes weak and enlarged. This makes it hard for the heart to pump blood through the body. Treatments can help with the symptoms and sometimes stop it from getting worse, but usually there's no cure.

  • Cholesterol

    Most parents probably don't think about what cholesterol means for their kids. But high cholesterol is a risk factor for heart disease, which has its roots in childhood.

  • Chylous Ascites

    Chylous ascites is when chyle collects in the belly. Depending on what's causing it, doctors can treat chylous ascites and often cure it.

  • Coarctation of the Aorta

    Coarctation of the aorta (COA) is a narrowing of the aorta, the major blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart to the body.

  • Congenital Heart Defects

    Heart defects happen when there's a problem with a baby's heart development during pregnancy. Most heart defects can be treated during infancy.

  • Congenital Hemangiomas

    A hemangioma is a growth of tangled blood vessels. A congenital hemangioma is one that a baby is born with. They're usually a bluish or purple circle or oval.

  • Congestive Heart Failure

    Heart failure is when the heart can’t pump blood the way it should. Congestive heart failure (CHF) is when blood backs up in the heart.

  • Dictionary: Aorta

    The aorta is the major blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart to the rest of the body.

  • Dictionary: Blalock-Taussig (BT) shunt

    A Blalock-Taussig (BT) shunt is a small, soft tube that lets blood in the body be redirected.

  • Dictionary: Blood Pressure

    Blood pressure is a measurement that tells how hard the heart is pumping to move blood through the blood vessels.

  • Dictionary: Heart Transplant

    A heart transplant is a surgery where doctors remove a person's sick heart and replace it with a healthy donor heart.

  • Dictionary: Inferior Vena Cava

    The inferior vena cava is the large vein that returns blood from the legs and abdomen to the heart.

  • Dictionary: Interstage Period

    Babies with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) need three surgeries. The time between the first and second surgeries is called the interstage period.

  • Dictionary: Left Atrium

    The left atrium receives blood full of oxygen from the lungs and then empties the blood into the left ventricle.

  • Dictionary: Left Ventricle

    The left ventricle pumps blood full of oxygen out to the body.

  • Dictionary: Open-Heart Surgery

    Open-heart surgery is surgery that involves opening the chest and heart. A heart-lung machine does the work for the heart and lungs during the procedure.

  • Dictionary: Right Atrium

    The right atrium receives blood low in oxygen from the body and then empties the blood into the right ventricle.

  • Dictionary: Right Ventricle

    The right ventricle pumps blood low in oxygen to the lungs.

  • Dictionary: Sano shunt

    A Sano shunt is a small, soft tube that lets blood in the body be redirected.

  • Dictionary: Single Ventricle Defect

    Having a single ventricle means that only one of the heart's two ventricles (pumping chambers) works well enough to pump blood.

  • Dictionary: Superior Vena Cava

    The superior vena cava is the large vein that returns blood from the head and arms to the heart.

  • Double Outlet Right Ventricle (DORV)

    Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a heart defect where the aorta connects to the heart in the wrong place.

  • Ebstein Anomaly

    Ebstein anomaly is a rare heart defect that affects the tricuspid valve. It can cause problems that range from very mild to very serious.

  • Echocardiogram

    An echocardiogram (also called an echo or cardiac ultrasound) uses sound waves to create pictures of the heart. It shows the structure of the heart and its parts and how well they’re working.

  • Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO)

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is the use of a machine to do the work that the heart and lungs normally do.

  • Fetal Echocardiogram

    A fetal echocardiogram (also called a fetal echo) uses sound waves to create pictures of an unborn baby's heart.

  • G6PD Deficiency

    G6PD deficiency an inherited condition in which someone doesn't have enough of the enzyme G6PD, which protects red blood cells.

  • Heart and Circulatory System

    The heart and circulatory system are our body's lifeline, delivering blood to the body's tissues. Brush up on your ticker with this body basics article.

  • Heart Murmurs

    Heart murmurs are very common, and most are no cause for concern and won't affect a child's health.

  • Hemolytic Anemia

    Hemolytic anemia is a type of anemia that happens when red blood cells break down faster than the body can make them.

  • Hemophilia

    Hemophilia is a rare bleeding disorder that prevents the blood from clotting properly. With modern treatment, most kids who have it can lead full, healthy lives.

  • Hemophilia: Handling Bleeds

    Kids with hemophilia can bleed easily or longer than normal. So it's important for parents to know how to handle bleeding when it happens.

  • Henoch-Schönlein Purpura (HSP)

    Most kids who develop this inflammation of the blood vessels (marked by a raised red and purple rash) make a full recovery and have no long-term problems.

  • Hereditary Spherocytosis

    Hereditary spherocytosis is an inherited blood disorder. Treatments can help with symptoms.

  • Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    When someone has hypertension (high blood pressure), the heart has to pump harder and the arteries are under more strain as they carry blood.

  • Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS)

    Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a birth defect of a baby’s heart. The left side of the heart doesn’t grow as it should, making it smaller and weaker than normal.

  • Immune Thrombocytopenia

    Immune thrombocytopenia happens when the immune system attacks platelets. Viral infections often trigger this in children, but it usually goes away within 6 months.

  • Infantile Hemangiomas

    A hemangioma is a growth of tangled blood vessels. An infantile hemangioma becomes visible in the first few weeks after birth.

  • Interrupted Aortic Arch (IAA)

    An interrupted aortic arch (IAA) is a rare heart condition in which the aorta doesn’t form completely. Surgery must be done within the first few days of a baby’s life to close the gap in the aorta.

  • Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Iron helps the body carry oxygen in the blood and plays a key role in brain and muscle function. Too little iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia.

  • Kawasaki Disease

    Kawasaki disease is an illness that causes inflammation in blood vessels throughout the body. When symptoms are noticed early and treated, kids begin to feel better within a few days.

  • Long QT Syndrome

    Long QT syndrome is a condition that affects the electrical system of the heart. Some kids have no symptoms, while others may feel changes in their heartbeat or feel lightheaded.

  • Lymphatic Malformations

    A lymphatic malformation is a clump of lymph vessels that form a growing, jumbled, spongy cluster. They're unusual growths, but are not cancerous.

  • Marfan Syndrome

    Marfan syndrome affects the body's connective tissue and can cause problems in the eyes, joints, and heart. Even though the disease has no cure, doctors can successfully treat just about all of its symptoms.

  • Metabolic Syndrome

    Metabolic syndrome is a group of health problems that put kids at risk for heart disease and diabetes. With lifestyle changes, many kids improve their health and reduce their risk of disease.

  • Mitral Valve Prolapse

    Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a very common heart condition, but it isn't a critical heart problem or a sign of other serious medical conditions.

  • Myocarditis

    The muscle that makes up the heart is called the myocardium. Myocarditis is when this muscle gets inflamed (swollen).

  • Noonan Syndrome

    Noonan syndrome is a condition that some babies are born with. It causes changes in the face and chest, and usually includes heart problems.

  • Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)

    The ductus arteriosus is a blood vessel that connects two major arteries before birth and normally closes after a baby is born. If it stays open, the result is a condition called patent ductus arteriosus (PDA).

  • Patent Foramen Ovale (PFO)

    The foramen ovale is a normal opening between the upper two chambers of an unborn baby’s heart. It usually closes soon after the baby’s birth — when it doesn't, it's called a patent foramen ovale.

  • Port-Wine Stains

    For most kids, these birthmarks are no big deal — they're just part of who they are. Read about port-wine stains, how to care for them, and, if necessary, what treatments are available.

  • Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS)

    Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) happens when the autonomic nervous system — which controls things like heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing — doesn't work as it should.

  • Premature Ventricular Contractions

    A premature ventricular contraction (PVC) is an early heartbeat that happens between normal heartbeats. PVCs usually are harmless.

  • Pulmonary Stenosis

    Pulmonary stenosis means the pulmonary valve is too small, narrow, or stiff. Many people have no symptoms, but kids with more severe cases will need surgery so that blood flows properly through the body.

  • Pulse Oximetry (Pulse Ox)

    Pulse oximetry, a simple test that measures the amount of oxygen in the bloodstream, may give the first clue that there is a heart or lung problem.

  • Quick Summary: Atrial Septal Defect (ASD)

    An atrial septal defect (ASD) is a heart defect in which there is an abnormal opening in the dividing wall between the upper filling chambers of the heart.

  • Quick Summary: Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS)

    Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a problem that happens when the left side of a baby’s heart doesn't form as it should. It’s smaller than normal and can’t pump enough blood to the body. After the baby is born, doctors can treat the problem with medicines and several surgeries.

  • Raynaud's Syndrome

    Raynaud's syndrome makes a person's fingers or toes temporarily feel cold, numb, tingly, or painful.

  • Sclerotherapy

    Sclerotherapy is a procedure in which medicine is injected into blood vessels or lymph vessels to make them close. It's used to treat vascular malformations.

  • Sickle Cell Disease

    Sickle cell disease is a blood disorder that makes red blood cells change shape and cause health problems. Find out how to help your child.

  • Single Ventricle Defects

    Usually, a heart has two working ventricles (pumping chambers). Having a single ventricle means that only one of the two ventricles works well enough to pump blood.

  • Stem Cell Transplants

    Stem cells help rebuild a weakened immune system. Stem cell transplants are effective treatments for a wide range of diseases, including cancer.

  • Strokes

    This "brain attack" happens when blood flow to the brain stops, even for a second. Often, kids who have a stroke can learn to use their arms and legs and speak again through brain retraining.

  • Sturge-Weber Syndrome

    Sturge-Weber syndrome is a problem with the way blood vessels grow in the skin, eyes, and brain. When a baby is born with a port-wine birthmark on the face, doctors will look for other signs of Sturge-Weber.

  • Supraventricular Tachycardia (SVT)

    Supraventricular tachycardia is a type of abnormal heart rhythm in which the heart beats very quickly.

  • Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)

    Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is a combination of problems caused by a birth defect that changes the way blood flows through the heart.

  • The Fontan Procedure

    The Fontan procedure is open-heart surgery. Often, it's done as the third of three surgeries to treat hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS).

  • The Glenn Procedure

    The Glenn procedure is an open-heart surgery. Often, it's done as the second of three surgeries to treat hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS).

  • The Norwood Procedure

    The Norwood procedure is an open-heart surgery. It's the first of three surgeries to treat hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS).

  • Thrombocytopenia

    Thrombocytopenia is when someone has too few platelets in their bloodstream. Many things can cause it and most can be treated.

  • Tricuspid Atresia

    Tricuspid atresia is a congenital heart defect. A baby born with tricuspid atresia often has serious symptoms soon after birth because blood flow to the lungs is much less than normal.

  • Truncus Arteriosus

    Truncus arteriosus is a heart defect that happens when a child is born with one large artery instead of two separate arteries.

  • Understanding Sickle Cell Disease

    Sickle cell disease is a blood disorder that makes red blood cells change shape. These sickle shaped cells get stuck together and block small blood vessels. This stops blood from moving as it should, which can lead to pain and organ damage.

  • Venous Malformations

    A venous malformation (VM) is a place in the body where veins haven't grown the right way. VMs can be difficult to treat.

  • Ventricular Assist Device

    A ventricular assist device is a mechanical pump that takes over for the heart and pumps blood. This can give a weak or injured heart time to heal or support someone as they wait for a heart transplant.

  • Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)

    Ventricular septal defect (VSD) — also known as a "hole in the heart" — is a congenital heart defect. Most VSDs are diagnosed and treated successfully.

  • Von Willebrand Disease

    Easy bruising and excessive bleeding can be signs of Von Willebrand disease, a genetic disorder that affects blood's ability to clot.

  • When Your Child Needs a Heart Transplant

    If your child needs a heart transplant, you're probably feeling lots of emotions. Fortunately, many kids who undergo heart transplants go on to live normal, healthy lives.

  • Words to Know (Heart Glossary)

    A guide to medical terms about the heart and circulatory system. In an easy A-Z format, find definitions on heart defects, heart conditions, treatments, and more.

  • X-Ray Exam: Chest

    A chest X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses a small amount of radiation to take a picture of a person's chest, including the heart, lungs, diaphragm, lymph nodes, upper spine, ribs, collarbone, and breastbone.

  • Blood in the Urine (Hematuria)

    If your child has blood in the urine, don't panic. Most of the time it's not serious. Find out what causes it and what to do about it.

  • Chronic Kidney Disease

    Parents of kids who have a chronic kidney disease often worry about what might happen next, how their child feels, and what treatments are likely to be involved. Find answers here.

  • Chyluria

    Chyluria is when there is chyle in the pee. Depending on what's causing it, chyluria can be treated and often can be cured.

  • Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) affects the adrenal glands, which make important hormones. Symptoms depend on a child's age, sex, and which hormones the adrenal glands make too little or too much of.

  • Dialysis

    Dialysis is a medical treatment that can take over the job of cleaning the blood when the kidneys can't.

  • Glomerulonephritis

    Glomerulonephritis happens when tiny filtering units in the kidneys stop working properly. Most cases get better on their own or with treatment.

  • Hemodialysis

    Hemodialysis is a medical treatment that uses a machine with a special filter to take waste and extra water out of the blood.

  • Henoch-Schönlein Purpura (HSP)

    Most kids who develop this inflammation of the blood vessels (marked by a raised red and purple rash) make a full recovery and have no long-term problems.

  • Hydrocele

    A hydrocele is a pouch of fluid around the testicle inside the scrotum. Hydroceles are common in newborns, especially preemies.

  • Hypospadias

    Hypospadias is when the urethra — the tube that drains pee from the bladder to outside the body — opens in a different place instead of at the tip of the penis.

  • Kidney Diseases in Childhood

    The kidneys play a critical role in health. When something goes wrong, it could indicate a kidney disease. What are kidney diseases, and how can they be treated?

  • Kidney Stones

    Kidney stones mostly happen to adults, but sometimes kids and teens can get them. Find out what kidney stones are, how to treat them, and ways to help prevent them.

  • Kidneys and Urinary Tract

    The bean-shaped kidneys, each about the size of a child's fist, are essential to our health. Their most important role is to filter blood and produce urine.

  • Meatal Stenosis

    The meatus is the opening in a boy's penis where the urine (pee) comes out. Meatal stenosis is when this is too small.

  • Meatoplasty

    The treatment for meatal stenosis is a simple procedure to make the opening of the meatus bigger called a meatoplasty.

  • Nephrotic Syndrome

    Nephrotic syndrome happens when tiny filtering units in the kidneys stop working properly. This can cause weight gain and other symptoms. Most kids eventually outgrow it.

  • Peritoneal Dialysis

    This medical treatment helps people with kidney failure. It can be done at home, often overnight, to take over the kidneys' job of filtering blood.

  • Quick Summary: Hydrocele

    A hydrocele (HI-dro-seel) is a pouch of fluid around the testicle inside the scrotum. Hydroceles are common in newborns, especially in premature babies. Older boys and men can get them too.

  • Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections and Related Conditions

    Recurrent urinary tract infections can cause kidney damage if left untreated, especially in kids under age 6. Here's how to recognize the symptom of UTIs and get help for your child.

  • Renal Tubular Acidosis

    This kidney problem causes acid levels in the blood to become too high, causing fatigue, muscle weakness, and other kidney problems. The condition is usually treatable.

  • Testicular Torsion

    This emergency condition causes extreme genital pain and usually requires surgery to save a boy's testicle. If your son has groin pain, get him to a doctor right away.

  • Ureteral Stent

    A ureteral stent is a small plastic tube placed inside the ureter to help pee pass from a kidney into the bladder.

  • Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR)

    This problem with the urinary tract causes urine to flow backward from the bladder to the kidneys. Most cases can be treated effectively, and many kids outgrow the condition.

  • When Your Child Needs a Kidney Transplant

    If your child needs a kidney transplant, you're probably feeling lots of emotions. Fortunately, many kids who undergo kidney transplants go on to live normal, healthy lives.

  • Wilms Tumor

    Wilms tumor is a cancer of the kidneys that usually affects newborns and the very young. Fortunately, most kids with Wilms tumor survive and go on to live normal, healthy lives.

  • ADHD

    ADHD is a common medical condition that can affect kids at school, at home, and in friendships. This article is for parents who want to learn more about ADHD and how to help kids get the best diagnosis and care.

  • ADHD Medicines

    Medicine doesn’t cure ADHD. But it does help boost a child's ability to pay attention, slow down, and have more self-control. This article for parents has details on how ADHD medicines help.

  • Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Autism spectrum disorder affects a child's ability to communicate and learn. Early intervention and treatment can help kids improve skills and do their best.

  • Neurocutaneous Syndromes

    Neurocutaneous syndromes are genetic disorders that lead to tumor growth in various parts of the body. Learn how to maximize the quality of life for children with these diseases.

  • Therapy for ADHD

    Therapy is part of the treatment for most kids and teens diagnosed with ADHD. This article helps parents learn what to expect and how therapy works.

  • Understanding Dyslexia

    Dyslexia is a learning disability that makes it hard to learn to read and understand written language. Even kids with average or above-average intelligence can have dyslexia.

  • Apnea of Prematurity

    Apnea of prematurity (AOP) is a condition in which premature infants stop breathing for 15 to 20 seconds during sleep. AOP usually goes away on its own as a baby matures.

  • Asthma

    Asthma makes it hard to breathe. But with treatment, the condition can be managed so that kids can still do the things they love. Learn all about asthma.

  • Bronchitis

    Bronchitis is an inflammation of the lining of the bronchial tubes. When a person has bronchitis, it may be harder for air to pass in and out of the lungs.

  • Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD)

    Babies who are born prematurely or who experience respiratory problems shortly after birth are at risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), sometimes called chronic lung disease.

  • Chylothorax

    A chlylothorax happens when chyle (lymphatic fluid) collects in the space around a lung.

  • Coughing

    Coughs are a common symptom, but most aren't a sign of a serious condition. Learn about different coughs, how to help your child feel better, and when to call your doctor.

  • Cystic Fibrosis

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder that affects the lungs and digestive system Kids who have it can get lung infections often and have trouble breathing.

  • Cystic Fibrosis and Nutrition

    Besides extra calories, kids with cystic fibrosis have some specific nutritional needs. Find out ways to help your child with CF grow healthy and strong.

  • Dietary Tips for Kids With Cystic Fibrosis

    Kids with cystic fibrosis have some special nutritional needs. Here's how parents can help them.

  • Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO)

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is the use of a machine to do the work that the heart and lungs normally do.

  • Fetal Lung Mass

    A fetal lung mass is an unusual lump that grows inside or next to an unborn baby’s lung. Some are treated before birth, while others are removed after the baby is born.

  • Incentive Spirometer

    An incentive spirometer trains people to take slow, deep breaths. It's used during recovery from some types of surgery or as a way to manage illness. Find out how it works.

  • Intraventricular Hemorrhage in Newborns

    An intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is bleeding in and around the brain’s ventricles. Most babies with a mild IVH do well.

  • Laryngomalacia

    Laryngomalacia is a common cause of noisy breathing in infants.

  • Lungs and Respiratory System

    By the time we're 70 years old, we will have taken at least 600 million breaths. All of this breathing couldn't happen without the respiratory system.

  • Managing Asthma

    Asthma control can take a little time and energy to master, but it's worth the effort. Learn more about ways to manage your child's asthma.

  • Meconium Aspiration Syndrome (MAS)

    Meconium aspiration can happen before, during, or after labor and delivery when a newborn inhales a mixture of meconium and amniotic fluid. Although it can be serious, most cases are not.

  • Plastic Bronchitis

    Plastic bronchitis happens when fluid collects in the lungs. Instead of draining out, it leaks into the airways and forms rubbery plugs called casts.

  • Pulse Oximetry (Pulse Ox)

    Pulse oximetry, a simple test that measures the amount of oxygen in the bloodstream, may give the first clue that there is a heart or lung problem.

  • Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Sometimes when babies are born premature, they have trouble breathing. This can be caused by respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Learn what RDS is, and how babies can be helped.

  • Transient Tachypnea of the Newborn (TTN)

    For some newborns, the first few breaths of life may be faster and more labored than normal because of a lung condition called transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN).

  • Vocal Cord Dysfunction

    Vocal cord dysfunction means that the vocal cords partially close during breathing, so air has more trouble getting through.

  • X-Ray Exam: Chest

    A chest X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses a small amount of radiation to take a picture of a person's chest, including the heart, lungs, diaphragm, lymph nodes, upper spine, ribs, collarbone, and breastbone.

  • A to Z: Yeast Infection

    See: Candidiasis.

  • Hydrocele

    A hydrocele is a pouch of fluid around the testicle inside the scrotum. Hydroceles are common in newborns, especially preemies.

  • Klinefelter Syndrome

    Boys with this condition have an extra "X" chromosome that prevents them from developing normally during puberty. But hormone treatments, counseling, and other therapies can help.

  • Miscarriages

    Miscarriages are common, and in most cases aren't preventable. But you can take steps to increase your chances of having a healthy pregnancy.

  • PMS, Cramps, and Irregular Periods

    Most period problems are common and normal. But some might be a sign that there's something else going on.

  • Precocious Puberty

    Precocious puberty - when signs of puberty start before age 7 or 8 in girls and age 9 for boys - can be tough for kids. But it can be treated.

  • Quick Summary: Hydrocele

    A hydrocele (HI-dro-seel) is a pouch of fluid around the testicle inside the scrotum. Hydroceles are common in newborns, especially in premature babies. Older boys and men can get them too.

  • Talking to Your Kids About STDs

    Your kids need to understand how STDs spread and how to protect themselves. Here's how to talk to them about sexually transmitted diseases.

  • Testicular Torsion

    This emergency condition causes extreme genital pain and usually requires surgery to save a boy's testicle. If your son has groin pain, get him to a doctor right away.

  • Turner Syndrome

    Girls with Turner syndrome, a genetic condition, usually are shorter than average and infertile due to early loss of ovarian function. Early diagnosis and treatments can help most of them.

  • Vaginal Yeast Infections

    Vaginal yeast infections are common among growing girls, and can cause some pain and discomfort. They usually clear up quickly with proper medical treatment.

  • Vaginitis in Children

    Vaginitis is redness, soreness, or swelling in and around the vagina. It's common in girls of all ages, and usually can be treated at home.

  • Your Daughter's First Gynecology Visit

    The idea of going to the gynecologist may make your daughter feel nervous. Here's how to make her feel more comfortable about a well-woman visit.

  • Night Terrors

    A night terror seems similar to a nightmare, but it's far more dramatic. Night terrors can be alarming, but aren't usually cause for concern or a sign of a medical issue.

  • Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Brief pauses in breathing during sleep can be normal. But when breathing stops often or for longer periods, it can be a cause for concern.

  • Sleep and Your Teen

    Teens need about 8–10 hours of sleep a night, but many don't get it. Keeping these tips in mind can help your teen get a good night’s sleep.

  • Sleepwalking

    Although it can be unnerving to see, sleepwalking is actually very common in kids. Here's how to keep your young sleepwalker safe.

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