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Medical Care and Your 4- to 5-Year-Old

Well-Child Visits

Regular well-child exams are an important part of keeping kids healthy and up to date on immunizations against many serious childhood diseases.

Checkups also are a chance for you and the doctor to talk about developmental and safety issues, and for you to get answers to any questions about your child's overall health.

What to Expect at the Doctor's Office

At yearly exams, your child will be weighed and measured, and these results will be plotted on growth charts for weight, height, and body mass index (BMI). Using these charts, doctors can see how kids are growing compared with other kids the same age and gender. The doctor will take a medical and family history and do a physical exam.

During checkups, your child's blood pressure, vision, and hearing will be checked. Your child may be screened for anemia, lead poisoning, tuberculosis, or high cholesterol.

Which Vaccines Will My Child Get?

Vaccines your child might get include:

The annual flu vaccine is recommended for all kids ages 6 months and older, as is an updated COVID-19 vaccine. Other vaccines might be needed if the doctor determines that your child is at risk for conditions like meningococcal or pneumococcal disease.

Developmental Milestones

Developmental milestones for 4-year-olds include being able to:

  • help with household tasks
  • play cooperatively with other kids
  • understand the concept of gender
  • identify colors

Developmental milestones for 5-year-olds include being able to:

  • dress independently and tie shoes
  • know their address and phone number
  • draw a person with head, body, arms, and legs
  • print some letters

The doctor will check for crossed eyes and any vision and hearing problems, and also check your child's teeth for tooth decay, abnormal tooth development, malocclusion (abnormal bite), dental injuries, or other problems. Besides the doctor's dental check, your child should have regular visits with a dentist.

The doctor also will check on behavioral and social development, asking questions to see if your child's everyday behavior is age-appropriate, how well your child does in social situations, and how well they communicate.

Child safety is another topic discussed at well-child visits. The doctor will talk about the importance of using car seats, closely watching kids around swimming pools, preventing poisoning, not smoking around kids, and using sunscreen. In homes with guns, weapons and ammunition should be stored separately and kept locked at all times.

When Should I Call the Doctor?

Some symptoms can be signs of an infection, chronic medical condition (such as asthma), or other medical problem. Call your doctor if your child has any of these:

  • changes in weight or eating habits
  • changes in behavior or sleep patterns
  • a failure to grow in height as expected
  • a fever and looks sick
  • lasting vomiting or diarrhea
  • trouble keeping liquids down
  • signs of a skin infection or long-lasting rash
  • a lasting cough, wheezing, or other breathing problems
  • localized pain, such as from an ear infection

By now you have probably called your doctor's office many times with questions and concerns about your child's health. Call the doctor if you think that something is wrong — you know your child best.

Common Medical Problems

Problems often found in this age group include bedwetting and sleep disturbances, such as nightmares. Kids also might have growing pains in their calves at night. Your doctor can offer guidance to help you manage these issues too.

Reviewed by: Elana Pearl Ben-Joseph, MD
Date Reviewed: Oct 1, 2023

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