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Grand Rounds: Congenital Cardiac Surgery: Does Fixing Broken Hearts Break Kidneys?


By Katja M. Gist, DO, MSc , Associate Professor, Department of Pediatrics, Co-Director, Center for Acute Care Nephrology, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati School of Medicine

Objectives (Educational Content) :

1. Describe the epidemiology and outcomes of cardiac surgery associated with acute kidney injury. 2. Recognize the challenges of current AKI diagnostics and thus therapeutics. 3. Identify a strategy to integrate risk stratification with damage biomarkers for population-based prognostic and predictive enrichment .

Target Audience:

General pediatricians, family physicians, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, social workers, psychologists, and nurses.

Identified Gap:

Recognize challenges in treatment of congenital cardiac patients with acute kidney injury.

Estimated Time to Complete the Educational Activity:

1 hour(s)

Expiration Date for CE/CME Credit:


Method of Participation in the Learning Process:

The learner will view the presentation, successfully complete a post-test and complete an activity evaluation.

Evaluation Methods:

All learners must successfully complete a post-test, as well as an activity evaluation, to claim CE/CME credit.


Dr. Gist has indicated the following financial/commercial relationships: Bioporto Diagnostics (NGAL) – Consultant Medtronic – Speaker Honoraria – Relationship ended All the financial relationships listed for this individual have been mitigated.

Accreditation Statement:

Children’s Hospital Medical Center of Akron is accredited by the Ohio State Medical Association to provide continuing medical education for physicians.

CHMCA designates this enduring material activity for a maximum of 1.0 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit TM.  Physicians should only claim the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.


Alten JA, Cooper DS, Blinder JJ, Selewski DT, Tabbutt S, Sasaki J, Gaies MG, Bertrandt RA, Smith AH, Reichle G, Gist KM, Banerjee M, Zhang W, Hock KM, Borasino S; Neonatal and Pediatric Heart and Renal Outcomes Network (NEPHRON) Investigators. Epidemiology of Acute Kidney Injury After Neonatal Cardiac Surgery: A Report From the Multicenter Neonatal and Pediatric Heart and Renal Outcomes Network. Crit Care Med. 2021 Oct 1;49(10):e941-e951. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000005165. PMID: 34166288.

Hasson DC, Brinton JT, Cowherd E, Soranno DE, Gist KM. Risk Factors for Recurrent Acute Kidney Injury in Children Who Undergo Multiple Cardiac Surgeries: A Retrospective Analysis. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2019;20(7):614-20. Epub 2019/03/30. doi: 10.1097/pcc.0000000000001939. PubMed PMID: 30925574; PMCID: PMC6612566.

Gist KM, Borasino S, SooHoo M, Soranno DE, Mack E, Hock KM, Rahman AKMF, Brinton JT, Basu RK, Alten JA. Transient and persistent acute kidney injury phenotypes following the Norwood operation: a retrospective study. Cardiol Young. 2021 Jul 8:1-8. doi: 10.1017/S1047951121002560. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34233781.