There are two major types of diabetes, but they don't have very exciting names. They're called type 1 and type 2. Let's find out about type 2 diabetes (say: dye-uh-be-tees), a health problem that affects kids and adults.
Diabetes is a disease that affects how the body uses glucose (say: gloo-kose), a sugar that is the body's main source of fuel. Like a CD player needs batteries, your body needs glucose to keep running. Here's how it should work:
The pancreas is a long, flat gland in your belly that helps your body digest food. It also makes insulin. Insulin is kind of like a key that opens the doors to the cells of the body. It lets the glucose in. Then the glucose can move out of the blood and into the cells.
But if someone has diabetes, the body either can't make insulin or the insulin doesn't work in the body like it should. The glucose can't get into the cells normally, so the blood sugar level gets too high. Lots of sugar in the blood makes people sick if they don't get treatment.
Type 1 and type 2 diabetes cause high blood sugar levels in different ways.
In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas can't make insulin. The body can still get glucose from food. But the glucose can't get into the cells, where it's needed. Glucose stays in the blood. This makes the blood sugar level very high.
Type 2 diabetes is different. With type 2, the pancreas still makes insulin. But the insulin doesn't do its job as well in the body. Glucose just hangs around and builds up in the blood. The pancreas makes even more insulin to get glucose to go into the cells, but eventually gets worn out from working so hard. As a result, the blood sugar levels rise too high.
Most people who have type 2 diabetes are overweight. In the past, mainly overweight adults got type 2 diabetes. Today, more kids are being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, probably because more kids are overweight.
Experts think that the tendency to get it is probably passed down through families. Kids with family members who have type 2 diabetes get diabetes more often. Also, kids from Native American, African American, Hispanic/Latino, or Asian/Pacific Island backgrounds are also more likely to get type 2 diabetes. Kids older than 10 are more likely to get type 2 diabetes than younger kids.
Some kids can have type 2 diabetes without knowing it. Some of the signs aren't easy to spot and can take a long time to develop. And a lot of kids don't have any symptoms at all.
But when a person first gets type 2 diabetes, he or she usually:
The skin can look different in some kids with type 2 diabetes. They may notice a dark ring around their necks that doesn't wash off. They may also see thick, dark, velvety skin under the arms, between the legs, between fingers and toes, or on elbows and knees.
How do you find out whether you have diabetes? Doctors can say for sure if a person has diabetes by testing blood samples for glucose. Even if a kid doesn't have any symptoms of type 2 diabetes, doctors may use blood tests to check for it in kids who are more likely to get it — like those who are overweight.
If you have type 2 diabetes, you may visit a doctor called a pediatric endocrinologist (say: pee-dee-ah-trik en-doh-krih-nah-leh-jist). A pediatric endocrinologist helps kids with diabetes, growth problems, and more.
Kids with type 2 diabetes have to pay a little more attention to what they're eating and doing than kids without diabetes. They may need to:
They might have to eat smaller amounts of foods than they had been and less salt or fat, too. The good news is that kids who eat healthy foods, stay active, and get to a good weight may be able to get their blood sugar levels into a healthier range. If that happens, their doctors may decide they don't have to take medicine for diabetes anymore.
Even though kids with diabetes have to do some special things, diabetes doesn't keep them from doing the stuff they love. They can still play sports, go out with their friends, and go on trips. So if you have a friend with diabetes, let him or her know you can deal with it. Being friends is all about having fun together, not having a perfect blood sugar level!
Reviewed by: Steven Dowshen, MD
Date reviewed: April 2012
|National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases This group conducts and supports research on many serious diseases affecting public health.|
|American Diabetes Association (ADA) The ADA website includes news, information, tips, and recipes for people with diabetes.|
|Children With Diabetes This website offers true stories about kids and teens who have diabetes.|
|Joslin Diabetes Center The website of this Boston-based center has information about how to monitor blood sugar and manage diabetes.|
|Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International (JDRF) JDRF's mission is to find a cure for diabetes and its complications through the support of research.|
|Type 1 Diabetes: What Is It? Thousands of kids all over the world have type 1 diabetes, a disease that affects how the body uses glucose.|
|Diabetes: Dealing With Feelings Dealing with diabetes can stir up a lot of different emotions. Find out more about dealing with your feelings if you're a kid with diabetes.|
|Can Diabetes Be Prevented? Diabetes is a health problem that affects kids of all ages, but you can't catch it like a cold. In some cases, diabetes can be prevented. Find out how.|
|Type 2 Diabetes: How Is It Treated? Kids with type 2 diabetes have to take some important steps to feel good and stay healthy. Find out more about treating type 2 diabetes in this article for kids.|
|Keeping Track of Your Blood Sugar Checking your blood sugar levels is a really important part of managing diabetes. Knowing those levels will help you keep your blood sugar under control - and that helps you feel good and keeps you healthy.|
|Diabetes Center Diabetes means a problem with insulin, an important hormone in the body. Find out how children with diabetes can stay healthy and do the normal stuff kids like to do.|
|Diabetes Control: Why It's Important Keeping blood sugar levels under control can help keep you healthy and prevent health problems from happening down the road. Find out more.|
|Weight and Diabetes Being at a healthy weight is a good idea for everyone, but it's even more important for kids with diabetes.|
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