A lack of answers is part of what makes sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) so frightening. SIDS is the leading cause of death among infants 1 month to 1 year old, and claims the lives of about 2,500 each year in the United States. It remains unpredictable despite years of research.
Even so, the risk of SIDS can be greatly reduced. First and foremost, infants younger than 1 year old should be placed on their backs to sleep — never face-down on their stomachs or on their sides.
As the name implies, SIDS is the sudden and unexplained death of an infant who is younger than 1 year old. It's a frightening prospect because it can strike without warning, usually in seemingly healthy babies. Most SIDS deaths are associated with sleep (hence the common reference to "crib death") and infants who die of SIDS show no signs of suffering.
While most conditions or diseases usually are diagnosed by the presence of specific symptoms, most SIDS diagnoses come only after all other possible causes of death have been ruled out through a review of the infant's medical history, sleeping environment, and autopsy. This review helps distinguish true SIDS deaths from those resulting from accidents, abuse, and previously undiagnosed conditions, such as cardiac or metabolic disorders.
When considering which babies could be most at risk, no single risk factor is likely to be sufficient to cause a SIDS death. Rather, several risk factors combined may contribute to cause an at-risk infant to die of SIDS.
Most deaths due to SIDS occur between 2 and 4 months of age, and incidence increases during cold weather. African-American infants are twice as likely and Native American infants are about three times more likely to die of SIDS than caucasian infants. More boys than girls fall victim to SIDS.
Other potential risk factors include:
Foremost among these risk factors is stomach sleeping. Numerous studies have found a higher incidence of SIDS among babies placed on their stomachs to sleep than among those sleeping on their backs or sides. Some researchers have hypothesized that stomach sleeping puts pressure on a child's jaw, therefore narrowing the airway and hampering breathing.
Another theory is that stomach sleeping can increase an infant's risk of "rebreathing" his or her own exhaled air, particularly if the infant is sleeping on a soft mattress or with bedding, stuffed toys, or a pillow near the face. In that scenario, the soft surface could create a small enclosure around the baby's mouth and trap exhaled air. As the baby breathes exhaled air, the oxygen level in the body drops and carbon dioxide accumulates. Eventually, this lack of oxygen could contribute to SIDS.
Also, infants who succumb to SIDS may have an abnormality in the arcuate nucleus, a part of the brain that may help control breathing and awakening during sleep. If a baby is breathing stale air and not getting enough oxygen, the brain usually triggers the baby to wake up and cry. That movement changes the breathing and heart rate, making up for the lack of oxygen. But a problem with the arcuate nucleus could deprive the baby of this involuntary reaction and put him or her at greater risk for SIDS.
The striking evidence that stomach sleeping might contribute to the incidence of SIDS led the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) to recommend in its 1992 Back to Sleep campaign that all healthy infants younger than 1 year of age be put to sleep on their backs (also known as the supine position).
Since the AAP's recommendation, the rate of SIDS has dropped by more than 50%. Still, SIDS remains the leading cause of death in young infants, so it's important to keep reminding parents about the necessity of back sleeping.
Many parents fear that babies put to sleep on their backs could choke on spit-up or vomit. According to the AAP, however, there is no increased risk of choking for healthy infants who sleep on their backs. (For infants with chronic gastroesophageal reflux (GER) or certain upper airway malformations, sleeping on the stomach may be the better option. The AAP urges parents to consult with their child's doctor in these cases to determine the best sleeping position for the baby.)
Placing infants on their sides to sleep is not a good idea, either, as there's a risk that infants will roll over onto their bellies while they sleep.
Some parents also may be concerned about positional plagiocephaly, a condition in which babies develop a flat spot on the back of their heads from spending too much time lying on their backs. Since the Back to Sleep campaign, this condition has become quite common — but it is usually easily treatable by changing your baby's position frequently and allowing for more "tummy time" while he or she is awake.
Of course, once babies can roll over consistently — usually around 4 to 7 months — they may choose not to stay on their backs all night long. At this point, it's fine to let babies pick a sleep position on their own.
In addition to placing healthy infants on their backs to sleep, the AAP suggests these measures to help reduce the risk of SIDS:
For parents and families who have experienced a SIDS death, many groups, including the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Alliance, can provide grief counseling, support, and referrals.
And growing public awareness of SIDS and precautions to prevent it should leave fewer parents searching for answers in the future.
Reviewed by: Floyd R. Livingston Jr., MD
Date reviewed: April 2014
|U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) This federal agency collects information about consumer goods and issues recalls on unsafe or dangerous products.|
|American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) The AAP is committed to the health and well-being of infants, adolescents, and young adults. The website offers news articles and tips on health for families.|
|Immunization Action Coalition This organization is a source of childhood, adolescent, and adult immunization information as well as hepatitis B educational materials.|
|Safe to Sleep This safety campaign teaches parents and other caregivers to always place babies on their backs to sleep. Babies who sleep on their backs are much less likely to die of SIDS than are babies who sleep on their stomachs or sides.|
|Sleep and Your 1- to 3-Month-Old At this age, babies generally have their days and nights straightened out. Many infants even "sleep through the night," which means 5 or 6 hours at a time.|
|Sleep and Your 4- to 7-Month-Old By this age, your baby should have a regular sleep pattern, with a few naps a day and a stretch of about 5 or 6 hours at night.|
|Sleep and Newborns Newborn babies may wake up often at night. Their internal time clocks are not yet set, and their small stomachs are often hungry for milk.|
|A Guide for First-Time Parents If you're a first-time parent, put your fears aside and get the basics in this guide about burping, bathing, bonding, and other baby-care concerns.|
|CPR Every parent should know how and when to administer CPR. Done correctly, CPR can save a child's life by restoring breathing and circulation until medical personnel arrive.|
|Pregnancy & Newborn Center Advice and information for expectant and new parents.|
|How Can I Be Sure My Baby Stays on Her Back While She Sleeps? Find out what the experts have to say.|
|Choosing Safe Baby Products Choosing baby products can be confusing, but one consideration must never be compromised: your little one's safety.|
|Choosing Safe Baby Products: Cribs Choosing baby products can be confusing with all the gadgets available. But one consideration must never be compromised: your baby's safety.|
|Sleep and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Certain sleep problems may crop up as your child approaches the first birthday, often as he or she becomes aware of time spent away from you.|
|Bed-Sharing Bed-sharing is controversial in the United States. Supporters believe that a parent's bed is just where an infant belongs. But is it safe?|
What to expect when coming to Akron Children's
For healthcare providers and nurses
Residency & Fellowships, Medical Students, Nursing and Allied Health
For prospective employees and career-seekers
Our online community that provides inspirational stories and helpful information.