Every bodily cell is tightly regulated with respect to growth, interaction with other cells, and even its life span. Cancer occurs when a type of cell has lost these normal control mechanisms and grows in a way that the body can no longer regulate.
Different kinds of cancer have different signs, symptoms, treatments, and outcomes, depending on the type of cell involved and the degree of uncontrolled cell growth.
All kinds of cancer, including childhood cancer, have a common disease process — cells grow out of control, develop abnormal sizes and shapes, ignore their typical boundaries inside the body, destroy their neighbor cells, and ultimately can spread (or metastasize) to other organs and tissues.
As cancer cells grow, they demand more and more of the body's nutrition. Cancer takes a child's strength, destroys organs and bones, and weakens the body's defenses against other illnesses.
Cancer affects only about 14 of every 100,000 children in the United States each year. Among all age groups, the most common childhood cancers are leukemia, lymphoma, and brain cancer. As kids enter the teen years, there is an increase in the incidence of osteosarcoma (bone cancer).
The sites of cancer are different for each type, as are treatment and cure rates.
Typically, factors that trigger cancer in kids usually differ from those that cause cancer in adults, such as smoking or exposure to environmental toxins. Rarely, there may be an increased risk of childhood cancer in kids who have a genetic condition, such as Down syndrome. Those who have had chemotherapy or radiation treatment for a prior cancer episode may also have an increased risk of cancer.
In most cases, however, childhood cancers arise from noninherited mutations (or changes) in the genes of growing cells. Because these errors occur randomly and unpredictably, there's no effective way to prevent them.
Sometimes, a doctor might spot early symptoms of cancer at regular checkups. However, some of these symptoms (such as fever, swollen glands, frequent infections, anemia, or bruises) are also associated with other infections or conditions that are much more common than cancer. Because of this, both doctors and parents might suspect other childhood illnesses when cancer symptoms first appear.
Once cancer has been diagnosed, it's important for parents to seek help from a medical center that specializes in pediatric oncology (treatment of childhood cancer).
The treatment of cancer in children can include chemotherapy (the use of medical drugs to kill cancer cells), radiation (the use of radiant energy to kill cancer cells), and surgery (to remove cancerous cells or tumors). The type of treatment needed depends on the type and severity of cancer and the child's age.
For children with leukemia or lymphoma, surgery generally plays a minor role. This is because leukemia and lymphoma involve the circulatory system and lymphatics, two systems that are located all throughout the body, making it difficult to treat by operating on one specific area.
In children with solid tumors that haven't spread to other parts of the body, however, surgery can often effectively remove cancer when used in combination with chemotherapy and/or radiation.
Chemotherapy is medication which is used as a tool to eliminate cancer cells in the body. Kids with cancer can be given the chemotherapy medications intravenously (through a vein) or orally (by mouth). Some forms of chemotherapy can be given intrathecally, or into the spinal fluid. The drugs enter the bloodstream and work to kill cancer in all parts of the body.
The duration of chemotherapy treatment and type and number of different of drugs used depends on the type of cancer and the child's response to the drugs. Every child's treatment differs, so a child may receive daily, weekly, or monthly chemotherapy treatments. The doctor may also recommend cycles of treatment, which allow the body to rest and recover between periods of chemo.
All of the medications used as chemotherapy also carry the risk of both short-term and long-term problems. Short-term side effects may include nausea, vomiting, hair loss, fatigue, anemia, abnormal bleeding, and increased risk of infection due to destruction of the bone marrow, as well as kidney damage and menstrual irregularities. Some drugs carry a risk of bladder inflammation and bleeding into the urine, hearing loss, and liver damage. Others may cause heart and skin problems. Longer-term effects can include infertility, growth problems, organ damage, or increased risk of other cancers.
Your doctor will use precautions as well as other medications to counteract as many of the side effects as possible.
Kids with certain types of cancer may receive bone marrow transplants. Bone marrow is a spongy tissue inside certain bones of the body that produces blood cells. If a child has a type of cancer that affects the function of blood cells, a bone marrow transplant (along with chemotherapy to kill the defective cells) may allow new, healthy cells to grow. Bone marrow transplant is also sometimes used to treat cancer that does not involve blood cells because it lets doctors use higher doses of chemo than would otherwise be tolerated.
Radiation is one of the most common treatments for cancer. A child who receives radiation therapy is treated with a stream of high-energy particles or waves that destroy or damage cancer cells. Many types of childhood cancer are treated with radiation along with chemotherapy or surgery.
Radiation has many potential side effects (such as increased risk of future malignancy and infertility), which you should discuss with the doctor.
The primary goal when treating kids with cancer is to cure them; this takes priority over all other aspects of care. However, many medications and therapies can make kids more comfortable while undergoing treatment for cancer.
When possible, older kids should be involved with their own cancer treatment. Facts about the specific type of cancer and its effects should be explained in language suitable for the child's age. However, when cancer affects younger children — toddlers and those under age 4 — simply telling them that they are "sick" and need "medicine" to get better is often enough explanation. For all age groups, the goal is to prevent fear and misunderstanding.
Many kids might feel guilty, as if the cancer is somehow their fault. Psychologists, social workers, and other members of the cancer treatment team can be a great help in reassuring and helping them with their feelings.
The cancer treatment team can guide patients and families through the pain, uncertainty, and disruptions caused by cancer. If necessary, team can also contact or visit the child's school to explain the diagnosis to teachers and classmates. Replacing fear and misunderstanding with compassion and information is a goal in helping kids with cancer cope with the illness.
The diagnosis and treatment of childhood cancers takes time, and there are both short-term and long-term side effects. But thanks to medical advances, more and more kids with cancer are finishing successful treatment, leaving hospitals, and growing up just like everybody else. Today, up to 70% of all children with cancer can be cured.
Reviewed by: Robin E. Miller, MD
Date reviewed: September 2010
|Starlight Starbright Children's Foundation The Starlight Starbright Children's Foundation is a nonprofit organization that offers entertainment, education, social networking, and other activities for seriously ill children and their families.|
|Children's Brain Tumor Foundation (CBTF) The CBTF funds research on pediatric brain tumors and provides resources, newsletters, and a support group for parents.|
|CureSearch for Children's Cancer CureSearch for Children's Cancer supports and sponsors research and treatment for childhood cancers.|
|OncoLink OncoLink provides patients and professionals with cancer information, support, and resources.|
|American Cancer Society The American Cancer Society is the nationwide community-based voluntary health organization dedicated to preventing cancer, saving lives and diminishing suffering from cancer through research, education, advocacy, and service. Call:(800) ACS-2345|
|Children's Oncology Camping Association International This group offers summer camp opportunities for children with cancer.|
|Alex's Lemonade Stand Foundation for Childhood Cancer A unique foundation that evolved from a young cancer patient's front-yard lemonade stand to a nationwide fundraising movement to find a cure for pediatric cancer.|
|Cancer Basics Get the basics on cancer and cancer treatments in this article.|
|Brain Tumors Brain tumors are the second most common group of childhood cancers. Treatment requires a very specialized plan involving a team of medical specialists.|
|Cancer: Readjusting to Home and School If you've just finished a long hospital stay, you may have questions about reconnecting with friends and family. Get answers in this article for teens.|
|What Is Cancer? When kids get cancer, it can often be treated and cured. Find out more in this article for kids.|
|Dealing With Cancer It's unusual for teens to have cancer, but it can happen. The good news is that most will survive and return to their everyday lives. Learn about how to cope if you or someone you know has cancer.|
|Lymphoma Although cancers that originate in the body's lymphatic tissues are the third most common type of cancer in children, most recover from lymphoma.|
|Is Breast Cancer a Threat in the Teen Years? Find out what the experts have to say.|
|Cancer: DJ's Story (Video) Leukemia survivor DJ talks about coping with cancer in this video for teens.|
|Chemotherapy Chemotherapy is a big word for treatment with medicines used to help people who have cancer. This medicine kills the cancer cells that are making the person sick.|
|Chemotherapy Chemotherapy, or chemo, is the use of medications to treat cancer. This article explains how chemo works and what to expect when getting treatment.|
|Leukemia Leukemia refers to cancers of the white blood cells (also called leukocytes or WBCs). With the proper treatment, the outlook for kids who are diagnosed with leukemia is quite good.|
|Radiation Therapy Radiation therapy, also called radiotherapy, irradiation, or X-ray therapy, is one of the most common forms of cancer treatment.|
|Radiation Therapy Radiation therapy is a treatment that can help people with cancer. Learn what's involved and how it works.|
|Radiation Therapy More than half of all people with cancer are treated with radiation therapy. Get the facts on radiation therapy, including what it is, what to expect, and how to cope with side effects.|
|Types of Cancer Teens Get While cancer is rare in teens, some types are more likely to affect young people. Learn about these types of cancer, including warning signs, symptoms, and treatments.|
|Some Kinds of Cancer Kids Get Cancer mostly affects adults, but there are some kinds that kids get, too. Find out more in this article for kids.|
|Osteosarcoma Osteosarcoma is the most common type of bone cancer. Boys are more likely to have osteosarcoma than girls, and most cases of osteosarcoma involve the knee.|
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