A chloride sweat test helps diagnose cystic fibrosis (CF), an inherited disorder that makes kids sick by disrupting the normal function of epithelial cells, which make up the sweat glands in the skin and also line passageways inside the lungs, liver, pancreas, and digestive and reproductive systems. Kids who have CF are more prone to repeated lung infections.
The sweat test measures the amount of chloride in sweat. Kids with cystic fibrosis can have two to five times the normal amount of chloride in their sweat. In a sweat test, the skin is stimulated to produce enough sweat to be absorbed into a special collector and then analyzed.
Doctors may test an infant suspected of having cystic fibrosis as early as 48 hours after birth, though any test conducted during a baby's first month might need to be repeated because newborns may not produce enough sweat to ensure reliable results.
Doctors will order a chloride sweat test for kids with a family history of cystic fibrosis or symptoms of the disorder. Symptoms and signs include failure to grow, repeated lung infections, and digestive problems.
No special preparation is necessary for this test. Before having this test, your child may eat, drink, and exercise as usual, and continue to take any current medications. Creams and lotions should not be applied to the skin 24 hours before the procedure. A sweat test usually takes about an hour, so you may want to bring books or toys to help your child pass the time.
There are no needles used in this procedure.
An area of skin on the arm will be washed and dried. Next, two electrodes are attached with straps. One of these contains a disc with pilocarpine gel, a medication that stimulates the sweat glands to produce sweat. The medication is pushed through the skin by a weak electric current. After this is completed, the electrodes are removed and the skin is cleansed.
A special sweat collection device is then attached to the clean skin surface in the area where the sweat glands were stimulated. It's taped to the skin to keep it from moving. The sweat is collected for 30 minutes. The sweat that's collected turns blue when it comes into contact with blue dye within the collector, making it visible to the technician.
After sufficient sweat accumulates in the tubing inside the collector, it's removed and placed in the sweat analyzer. The collector apparatus is removed and the arm is cleaned again. Your child's skin may remain red and continue sweating for several hours after the test.
This test shouldn't be painful, though some kids do feel a slight tingling or tickling sensation when the electrodes apply current to the skin.
Results are usually available in 1-2 days.
If your child has a sweat chloride level of more than 60 millimoles per liter, it's considered abnormal and indicates a high likelihood of cystic fibrosis, though some children with CF do have borderline or even normal sweat chloride levels. If more sweat is needed, the test might be repeated. If results are positive or unclear, a blood test may be done, especially for babies.
This test poses very little risk of complications. The electrical current may cause your child's skin to be red or to sweat excessively for a short period of time. In rare cases, the skin may look slightly sunburned.
You may choose to stay with your child to help keep him or her distracted during the test.
If you have questions about the chloride sweat test and how it's conducted, speak with your doctor.
Reviewed by: Yamini Durani, MD
Date reviewed: July 2012
|Cystic Fibrosis Foundation This organization offers information about the illness, public policy, clinical trials and local chapters.|
|American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) The AAP is committed to the health and well-being of infants, adolescents, and young adults. The website offers news articles and tips on health for families.|
|Boomer Esiason Foundation This former NFL quarterback has a personal interest in CF - his son has the disease - and has created this foundation to help find a cure.|
|Cystic Fibrosis and Nutrition In addition to extra calories, kids with cystic fibrosis have some specific nutritional needs. Find out ways to help your child with CF grow healthy and strong.|
|Cystic Fibrosis Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited disease that causes the body to produce mucus that's extremely thick and sticky. It mainly affects the lungs and the pancreas, causing serious breathing and digestive problems.|
|Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition Like every other teenager, girls and guys with CF need calories to fuel their growth. They just need more of them - sometimes as much as 30% to 50% more calories than other teens.|
|Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition Kids who have cystic fibrosis need to eat extra calories to stay healthy. Find out why in this article for kids.|
|Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Respiratory Screen: Sputum Kids with cystic fibrosis (CF) often get lung and airway infections. A sputum CF respiratory screen or culture helps doctors detect, identify, and treat infection-causing bacteria or fungi.|
|Cystic Fibrosis Cystic fibrosis (CF), a genetic disorder that particularly affects the lungs and digestive system, makes kids who have it more vulnerable to repeated lung infections.|
|Cystic Fibrosis Cystic fibrosis affects the lungs and makes it hard to breathe. Find out more in this article for kids.|
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