Amebiasis is an intestinal illness that's typically transmitted when someone eats or drinks something that's contaminated with a microscopic parasite called Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica). The parasite is an amoeba, a single-celled organism. That's how the illness got its name — amebiasis.
In many cases, the parasite lives in a person's large intestine without causing any symptoms. But sometimes, it invades the lining of the large intestine, causing bloody diarrhea, stomach pains, cramping, nausea, loss of appetite, or fever. In rare cases, it can spread into other organs such as the liver, lungs, and brain.
Amebiasis typically occurs in areas where living conditions are crowded and where there is a lack of adequate sanitation. The illness is very prevalent in parts of the developing world, including Africa, Latin America, India, and Southeast Asia. It is rare in the United States, occurring mostly in immigrants, recent travelers to high-risk countries, and people with HIV/AIDS.
Most kids who get amebiasis have minimal or no symptoms. When children do become ill, they experience abdominal pain that begins gradually, along with frequent loose or watery bowel movements, cramps, nausea, and a loss of appetite. In some cases they develop a fever and, possibly, bloody stools.
For some people, symptoms of amebiasis can begin within days to weeks of swallowing food or water contaminated by amoebas. For other people, symptoms of amebiasis either take months to appear or never appear at all.
Amebiasis is contagious. Wherever living conditions are unsanitary and hygiene is poor, the chances are higher that the infection will pass from person to person.
Someone carrying amoebas in his or her intestines can pass the infection to others through the stool. When infected stool contaminates food or water supplies, amebiasis can spread quickly to many people at once. This is especially true in developing countries where drinking water may be contaminated.
Amebiasis can also be spread between people through inadequate hand washing, by using the same objects, and by sexual contact.
There is no vaccine to prevent amebiasis.
Because amoebas may contaminate food and water, you can help prevent the illness by being cautious about what you eat and drink, especially in developing countries, where a good rule regarding food is to cook it, boil it, peel it, or forget it.
If your doctor suspects that your child has amebiasis, you may be asked to collect stool samples. After diagnosis, treatment will usually require consultation with appropriate experts such as those at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) or other infectious disease specialists.
Call your doctor if your child has signs or symptoms of amebiasis, including:
This is especially important if you have recently traveled to a part of the world where amebiasis is common. Your child should also be examined if he or she has persistent diarrhea without any other symptoms.
Reviewed by: Nicole A. Green, MD
Date reviewed: January 2014
|National Institutes of Health's National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) conducts and supports basic and applied research to better understand, treat, and ultimately prevent infectious, immunologic, and allergic diseases.|
|Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) The CDC (the national public health institute of the United States) promotes health and quality of life by preventing and controlling disease, injury, and disability.|
|American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) The AAP is committed to the health and well-being of infants, adolescents, and young adults. The website offers news articles and tips on health for families.|
|CDC: Travelers' Health Look up vaccination requirements for travel destinations, get updates on international outbreaks, and more, searachable by country.|
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