Leukemia is a type of cancer that affects the body's white blood cells (WBCs).
Normally, WBCs help fight infection and protect the body against disease. But in leukemia, WBCs turn cancerous and multiply when they shouldn't, resulting in too many abnormal WBCs, which then interfere with the body's ability to function normally.
Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) is a rare childhood cancer that usually occurs in children younger than 2 years old. In JMML, too many myelocytes and monocytes (two types of WBCs) are produced from immature blood stem cells called blasts. These myelocytes, monocytes, and blasts overwhelm the normal cells in the bone marrow and other organs, causing the symptoms of JMML.
The cause of JMML is unknown, but doctors do know that certain medical conditions — such as neurofibromatosis type 1 and Noonan syndrome — can make a child more likely to develop it.
JMML tends to progress slowly, so at first a child may have few if any symptoms. In fact, symptoms can take months or even years to develop.
The symptoms of all types of leukemia are generally the same and include:
A doctor who suspects a child has leukemia may order tests that include:
Chemotherapy (the use of drugs to kill cancer cells) may be used to temporarily control JMML. However, effective treatment of JMML usually requires a stem cell (bone marrow) transplant.
This procedure involves destroying cancer cells and normal bone marrow and immune system cells with high-dose chemotherapy and then re-introducing healthy donor stem cells into the body. The new stem cells can rebuild a healthy blood supply and immune system.
Even though these therapies are the treatment of choice for kids with JMML, the disease remains difficult to cure. As a result, researchers are looking into the use of molecular-targeted therapies (medications that block the expansion of cancer cells by disrupting certain molecules or proteins needed for growth), which also may be an effective treatment.
Being told that your child has cancer can be a terrifying experience, and the stress of treating the disease can be overwhelming for any family.
Although you might feel like it at times, you're not alone. To find out about support that may be available to you or your child, talk to your doctor or a hospital social worker. Many resources are available that can help you get through this difficult time.
Reviewed by: Emi H. Caywood, MD
Date reviewed: March 2012
|CureSearch for Children's Cancer CureSearch for Children's Cancer supports and sponsors research and treatment for childhood cancers.|
|American Cancer Society The American Cancer Society is the nationwide community-based voluntary health organization dedicated to preventing cancer, saving lives and diminishing suffering from cancer through research, education, advocacy, and service. Call:(800) ACS-2345|
|National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) The NMDP is a nonprofit organization that facilitates unrelated marrow and blood stem cell transplants for people with life-threatening diseases who do not have matching donors in their families.|
|Alex's Lemonade Stand Foundation for Childhood Cancer A unique foundation that evolved from a young cancer patient's front-yard lemonade stand to a nationwide fundraising movement to find a cure for pediatric cancer.|
|Leukemia & Lymphoma Society The Leukemia & Lymphoma Society is dedicated to funding blood-cancer research, education, and patient services. The Society's mission is to cure leukemia, lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease, and myeloma, and to improve the quality of life of patients and their families. Call: (914) 949-5213|
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|Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) Among kids with leukemia, 20% have this form of the blood cancer. With treatment, most recover.|
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|Cancer Center Cancer is a serious illness that needs special treatment. Find out more about how kids can cope with cancer.|
|Chemotherapy Chemotherapy is a big word for treatment with medicines used to help people who have cancer. This medicine kills the cancer cells that are making the person sick.|
|Leukemia Leukemia refers to cancers of the white blood cells (also called leukocytes or WBCs). With the proper treatment, the outlook for kids who are diagnosed with leukemia is quite good.|
|Types of Cancer Teens Get While cancer is rare in teens, some types are more likely to affect young people. Learn about these types of cancer, including warning signs, symptoms, and treatments.|
|Some Kinds of Cancer Kids Get Cancer mostly affects adults, but there are some kinds that kids get, too. Find out more in this article for kids.|
|Caring for a Seriously Ill Child Taking care of a chronically ill child is one of the most draining and difficult tasks a parent can face. But support groups, social workers, and family friends often can help.|
|Stem Cell Transplants Stem cells help rebuild a weakened immune system. Stem cell transplants are effective treatments for a wide range of diseases, including cancer.|
|Stem Cell Transplants Stem cells can develop into cells with different skills, so they're useful in treating diseases like cancer.|
|When Cancer Keeps You Home Cancer patients often have to stay at home to avoid infection. Read our ideas on ways to make the best of your time at home.|
|Cancer Center Visit our Cancer Center for teens to get information and advice on treating and coping with cancer.|
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