A wound drainage culture is a test to detect germs such as bacteria, fungi, or viruses in an open wound or abscess (boil). Open wounds, in which the skin has been torn, cut, or punctured, can result from things such as falls, bites, or burns. A surgical incision is also a type of an open wound.
Germs can infect wounds and cause pain, swelling, warmth, and redness around the wound. Infection can also lead to pus — a yellowish, foul-smelling fluid — building up and draining from the wound. Drainage can be obtained from an abscess under the skin after it is lanced.
Wound drainage cultures can show what type of germ is causing the infection and help determine which treatment is most appropriate.
Doctors order wound drainage cultures when they suspect that wounds have become infected. Symptoms of infection may include:
You don't have to do anything special to prepare your child for a wound drainage culture, although you should tell the doctor about any antibiotics your child is taking or has taken recently, as this can affect the results.
A doctor or nurse will clean the surface of the wound and the surrounding skin with a sterile solution such as saline.
There are several methods of obtaining a wound drainage culture:
The culture sample will be placed in a special container and sent to a laboratory where it will be observed for 2 days to see if any germs grow.
After any of these procedures, the wound is cleansed and bandaged.
If an abscess needs to be punctured or a slit has to be made in the skin, numbing cream will be placed over the skin about 30 minutes before the procedure. Your child may feel pressure and some discomfort during the incision and drainage, but there shouldn't be any pain.
An infant or toddler may receive medication by mouth or through a vein to make him or her sleep during the procedure.
A technician with expertise in interpreting culture samples will look at any germ growth under a microscope and may run some chemical tests, then report the results to your child's doctor, who review the results with you. If nothing significant grows, the culture is called "negative." If a germ that can cause infection grows, the culture is "positive."
Results aren't available to the patient or family at the time of the test, and are usually ready in 2 days, because it takes time for the germs to grow. Some less common kinds of germs grow slowly and may take several weeks to become obvious in the container.
If the wound looks infected or your child looks ill, the doctor may start treatment before the final results are ready. Treatment will be based on the most likely cause of infection, but can be revised to be specific for the germ found when the culture is completed and the most effective treatment has been determined.
A wound drainage culture is a safe procedure. There may be some mild bleeding after the wound is swabbed or the skin is cut. Most of the time, there are no complications.
If your child requires sedation, there's a slight chance of slowed breathing due to the medications. If there are any problems with the sedation, the medical staff will treat them right away.
You can help prepare your child for a wound drainage culture by explaining that the test will be brief. It's important to tell your child to be still during the wound drainage collection.
If an abscess is going to be drained, you can tell your child that the discomfort will be brief. Explain the procedure in simple language, and make sure the child understands where on his or her body the culture will be performed. After the procedure, make sure your child follows any other instructions the doctor gives you.
If you have questions about the wound drainage culture, contact your doctor. You can also talk to the nurse or doctor performing the procedure right before it's done.
Reviewed by: Elana Pearl Ben-Joseph, MD
Date reviewed: March 2013
|American Medical Association (AMA) The AMA has made a commitment to medicine by making doctors more accessible to their patients. Contact the AMA at: American Medical Association|
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|Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) The CDC (the national public health institute of the United States) promotes health and quality of life by preventing and controlling disease, injury, and disability.|
|American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) The AAP is committed to the health and well-being of infants, adolescents, and young adults. The website offers news articles and tips on health for families.|
|What Are Germs? Germs are the microscopic bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa that can cause disease. With a little prevention, you can keep harmful germs out of your family's way.|
|Staph Infections When skin is punctured or broken for any reason, staph bacteria can enter the wound and cause an infection. But good hygiene can prevent many staph infections. Learn more.|
|Sepsis Sepsis is a serious infection usually caused when bacteria make toxins that cause the immune system to attack the body's own organs and tissues.|
|Cellulitis Cellulitis is an infection of the skin and underlying tissues that can affect any area of the body. It begins in an area of broken skin, like a cut or scratch.|
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