May also be called: Water on the Brain
Hydrocephalus (sometimes called "water on the brain") is a brain condition that happens when cerebral spinal fluid — the clear, water-like fluid that surrounds and cushions the brain and spinal cord — is unable to drain from the brain.
Everyone's brain and spinal cord float in a saltwater liquid called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). CSF is produced in spaces within the brain called ventricles. Normally, it flows from the ventricles to the outer part of the brain and the spinal canal and then is recycled into the bloodstream. If a disease, injury, or other condition interferes with this recycling, the fluid can build up inside the brain.
This build-up of extra CSF inside the brain under pressure is called hydrocephalus. Abnormal pressure inside the head can cause headaches, vomiting, nausea (in older kids), and changes in behavior. It can damage the brain and interfere with its growth and development. In a young child it can cause the head to grow bigger. If the pressure gets very high, hydrocephalus can be life threatening.
When treated at the right time and with good medical care, hydrocephalus can be well controlled. To relieve the pressure, doctors may perform a type of surgery so the CSF flows out of the brain's ventricles and into another part of the body (for example, a ventriculoperitoneal [VP] shunt leads the fluid into the belly).
Surgery cannot cure the underlying cause of the hydrocephalus, but can treat the symptoms by decreasing the pressure inside the head.
All A to Z dictionary entries are regularly reviewed by KidsHealth medical experts.
|American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) The AAP is committed to the health and well-being of infants, adolescents, and young adults. The website offers news articles and tips on health for families.|
|American Academy of Family Physicians This site, operated by the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP), provides information on family physicians and health care, a directory of family physicians, and resources on health conditions.|
|Hydrocephalus Often called "water on the brain," hydrocephalus can cause babies' and young children's heads to swell to accommodate excess cerebral spinal fluid. With early diagnosis and timely treatment, most kids recover successfully.|
|Ultrasound: Head Doctors order head ultrasounds when there's a concern about neurological problems in an infant.|
|When Your Baby Is Born With a Health Problem If you're expecting a baby, it's important to understand that certain health problems and complications can't be prevented, no matter how smoothly the pregnancy goes.|
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