A valproic acid test measures the amount of valproic acid, which is an anticonvulsant medicine, in a blood sample. Valproic acid is prescribed primarily to prevent seizures.
The seizure disorder epilepsy is a nervous system condition that causes electrical signals in the brain to misfire. These disruptions lead to temporary communication problems between nerve cells, resulting in symptoms that range from mild (blinking or staring into space) to severe (losing consciousness or whole body shaking).
Seizures may be caused by many different conditions, including infections such as meningitis or encephalitis; a congenital (present from birth) brain or blood vessel malformation; brain trauma due to an accident or lack of oxygen at birth; a metabolic or genetic disorder; brain tumor; or stroke. Frequently, the cause is unknown.
Valproic acid also may be used to treat bipolar disorder, a condition characterized by periods of intensely high and low moods, or to help prevent migraine headaches. In many cases, it's used in conjunction with other medications for maximum effectiveness.
Valproic acid blood levels must stay within a specific range for the drug to work properly. Doctors must prescribe enough to prevent symptoms, but not so much so as to cause unwanted side effects. One of the most serious side effects of valproic acid is liver damage. Because the rate at which the liver can process the drug varies from person to person, the test is often performed at regular intervals throughout treatment.
If a current dose of valproic acid seems to be working, regular blood tests can help ensure that the dose remains steady. If symptoms don't seem to be diminishing or a child is experiencing side effects, the test can be used to adjust the medication to a more effective dose. This kind of close monitoring is especially important if other medications are added to the treatment plan, since some can change the way the body processes valproic acid.
No special preparations are needed for this test. Your doctor may recommend that the test be performed at a certain time — for example, just before your child's daily dose — since valproic acid levels may fluctuate throughout the day. Also, it's important to let the doctor know about any other medications your child may be taking, as these can affect the results.
On the day of the test, it may help to have your child wear a short-sleeve shirt to allow easier access for the technician who will be drawing the blood.
A health professional will usually draw the blood from a vein. For an infant, the blood may be obtained by puncturing the heel with a small needle (lancet). If the blood is being drawn from a vein, the skin surface is cleaned with antiseptic and an elastic band (tourniquet) is placed around the upper arm to apply pressure and cause the veins to swell with blood. A needle is inserted into a vein (usually in the arm inside of the elbow or on the back of the hand) and blood is withdrawn and collected in a vial or syringe.
After the procedure, the elastic band is removed. Once the blood has been collected, the needle is removed and the area is covered with cotton or a bandage to stop the bleeding. Collecting the blood for the test will only take a few minutes.
Either method (heel or vein withdrawal) of collecting a blood sample is only temporarily uncomfortable and can feel like a quick pinprick. Afterward, there may be some mild bruising, which should go away in a day or so.
The blood sample will be processed by a machine. The results are commonly available after a few hours or the next day.
The valproic acid test is considered a safe procedure. However, as with many medical tests, some problems can happen with having blood drawn. These include:
Having a blood test is relatively painless. Still, many children are afraid of needles. Explaining the test in terms your child can understand might help ease some of the fear.
Allow your child to ask the technician any questions he or she might have. Tell your child to try to relax and stay still during the procedure, as tensing muscles and moving can make it harder and more painful to draw blood. It also may help for your child to look away when the needle is being inserted into the skin.
If you have questions about the valproic acid test, speak with your doctor. You can also talk to the technician before the procedure.
Reviewed by: Yamini Durani, MD
Date reviewed: July 2014
|Children's Brain Tumor Foundation (CBTF) The CBTF funds research on pediatric brain tumors and provides resources, newsletters, and a support group for parents.|
|Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) The CDC (the national public health institute of the United States) promotes health and quality of life by preventing and controlling disease, injury, and disability.|
|American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) The AAP is committed to the health and well-being of infants, adolescents, and young adults. The website offers news articles and tips on health for families.|
|Epilepsy Foundation Epilepsy Foundation has information on books, pamphlets, videos, and educational programs about seizure disorders. Call: (800) EFA-1000|
|Child & Adolescent Bipolar Foundation This organization offers information, resources, and a community center that includes online support groups.|
|Lab Tests Online This non-commercial site was developed by laboratory professionals to educate caregivers, patients, and patients' families about lab tests.|
|Blood Test (Video) These videos show what's involved in getting a blood test and what it's like to be the person taking the blood sample.|
|Migraines: What a Pain! A migraine is a really bad kind of headache. Find out more in this article for kids.|
|Stroke A stroke means that something has stopped the normal blood flow to the brain. Find out more in this article for kids.|
|Bipolar Disorder Someone who has bipolar disorder goes back and forth between feeling full of energy and ideas to feeling very low. Read more about it in this article for kids.|
|Encephalitis Encephalitis is a rare brain inflammation caused by a virus. The best way to avoid encephalitis is to prevent the illnesses that may lead to it.|
|A to Z Symptoms: Seizure Find out about the signs, causes, and treatements for different types of seizures.|
|Migraine Headaches If you've ever had a migraine, you know that these headaches can cause severe pain and other symptoms. Read this article to learn about what causes migraines, migraine treatments, and lots more.|
|Babysitting: Dealing With Seizures What should you do if a child you're babysitting has a seizure? Our tip sheet can help you be prepared.|
|Getting a Blood Test (Video) A blood test might sound scary, but it usually takes less than a minute. Watch what happens in this video for kids.|
|Strokes This "brain attack" happens when blood flow to the brain stops, even for a brief second. Signs and symptoms of strokes in kids are similar to those in adults.|
|Epilepsy It comes from a Greek word meaning "to hold or seize," and seizures are what happen to people with epilepsy. Learn more about epilepsy in this article written just for kids.|
|A to Z: Seizure, Grand Mal A grand mal seizure is a sudden attack that brings on intense muscle spasms and loss of consciousness. It is caused by abnormal brain activity and affects the entire body.|
|A to Z: Seizure, Petit Mal A petit mal seizure is type of epileptic seizure that causes a person to briefly lose consciousness and stare ahead without moving, appearing "absent."|
|Epilepsy Seizures are a common symptom of epilepsy, a condition that affects millions of people worldwide. Learn all about epilepsy, including what to do if you see someone having a seizure.|
|Word! Seizure You might hear a seizure called a convulsion, fit, or spell.|
|Meningitis Meningitis (inflammation of the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord) is treatable, but can be serious. So it's important to know the symptoms and get prompt diagnosis and treatment.|
|Understanding Depression Depression is the most common mental health disorder in the U.S. If you think your child is depressed, you'll want to learn more about what depression is, what causes it, and what you can do to help.|
|Brain Tumors Brain tumors are the second most common group of childhood cancers. Treatment requires a very specialized plan involving a team of medical specialists.|
|Epilepsy Epilepsy causes electrical signals in the brain to misfire, which can lead to multiple seizures over a period of time. Anyone can get epilepsy at any age, but the majority of new diagnoses are in kids.|
|Seizures Seizures are caused by abnormal electrical discharges in the brain. Find out what you need to know about seizures and what to do if your child has one.|
|Bipolar Disorder Bipolar disorders are one of several medical conditions called depressive disorders that affect the way a person's brain functions. Find out more about bipolar disorder.|
|Headaches Headaches affect kids as well as adults. Learn about common causes and when to talk to a doctor.|
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