Genital warts, sometimes called venereal warts, are growths or bumps usually contracted through sexual contact. They're caused by certain types of the human papillomavirus (HPV), which is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).
There are more than 100 types of HPV. Some of them cause the kind of warts you see on people's hands and feet. Genital warts and the kinds of warts on hands and feet are usually caused by different types of HPV. More than 40 types of HPV cause genital warts.
In females, genital warts appear in and around the vagina or anus or on the cervix. In males, they appear on the penis, scrotum, or around the anus. Genital warts can be raised or flat, small or large. Sometimes they're clustered together in a cauliflower-like shape. Sometimes, the warts are so small and flat that they may not be noticed right away.
Most of the time, genital warts are flesh-colored and painless, but some people may experience itching, bleeding, burning, or pain. It may take several months or years after infection for symptoms to appear — if there are symptoms at all.
The virus that causes genital warts is typically transmitted through sexual contact (anal, oral, or vaginal) with an infected person, and warts can appear within several weeks or months afterwards.
When kids get genital warts, it could be a sign of sexual abuse, and parents should be aware of that possibility. However, HPV can also be transmitted through nonsexual contact between a child and a caregiver — for instance, while giving a child a bath or changing a diaper. Kids also can reinfect themselves by touching a wart somewhere else on their body and then touching their genital area.
The virus is passed through skin-to-skin contact, but not everyone who's been exposed to the virus will develop genital warts. In fact, most people exposed to the virus do not develop warts. Sometimes, a person's own immune system will clear the virus, and they might never even know they had it. When the HPV isn't cleared away, genital warts or other problems can develop.
If left untreated, genital warts may grow bigger and multiply. They may go away on their own without treatment, but this doesn't mean they should be ignored because when genital warts are present they can be spread to other people.
A vaccine for people 9 to 26 years old is approved to prevent HPV infection, which causes most genital warts and cervical cancers. The vaccine is given as three injections over a 6-month period and, to be effective, must be given before someone is exposed to HPV. It doesn't protect people who have already been infected with certain HPV strains, and it doesn't protect against all types of HPV, so be sure your kids have routine physical checkups and, for girls, gynecologic exams. If you have questions about the vaccine, talk with your doctor.
Because genital warts are spread through sexual contact, the best way to prevent them is to abstain from having sex. Sexual contact with more than one partner or with someone who has more than one partner increases the risk of contracting any STD.
When properly and consistently used, condoms decrease the risk of STDs. Latex condoms provide greater protection than natural-membrane condoms. The female condom, made of polyurethane, is also considered effective at preventing STDs. However, condoms can't fully protect someone against genital warts because HPV can infect areas that aren't covered by a condom. Using a douche can actually increase a female's risk of contracting STDs because it can change the natural flora of the vagina and may flush bacteria higher into the genital tract.
The immune system can sometimes clear the warts with no treatment. Other times, genital warts can be treated and removed with prescription medication or other medical procedures, such as freezing or laser treatments.
A teen who is being treated for genital warts also should be tested for other STDs, and should have time alone with the doctor to openly discuss issues like sexual activity. Not all teens are comfortable talking with parents about these issues, but it's important to encourage them to talk to a trusted adult who can help.
If your teen is thinking of becoming sexually active or already has started having sex, it's important to talk about it. Make sure your teen knows how STDs can be spread (during anal, oral, or vaginal sex) and that these infections often don't have symptoms, so a partner might have an STD without knowing it.
It can be difficult to talk about STDs, but just as with any other medical issue, teens need this information to stay safe and healthy. Provide the facts, and let your child know where you stand.
It's also important that all teens have regular full physical exams — which can include screening for STDs. Your teen may want to see a gynecologist or a specialist in adolescent medicine to talk about sexual health issues. Community health organizations and sexual counseling centers in your local area also may be able to offer some guidance.
Reviewed by: Elana Pearl Ben-Joseph, MD
Date reviewed: March 2014
|American Sexual Health Association This nonprofit organization is dedicated to preventing sexually transmitted diseases and offers hotlines for prevention and control of STDs.|
|American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) The AAP is committed to the health and well-being of infants, adolescents, and young adults. The website offers news articles and tips on health for families.|
|American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) This site offers information on numerous health issues. The women's health section includes readings on pregnancy, labor, delivery, postpartum care, breast health, menopause, contraception, and more.|
|Questions and Answers About Sex Answering kids' questions about sex is a responsibility many parents dread. But by answering these questions honestly, parents can help foster healthy feelings about sex.|
|Do I Need a Pelvic Exam if I Had the HPV Vaccine? Find out what the experts have to say.|
|About Condoms Talking to your kids about sex can be daunting. But discussing issues like abstinence, STDs, and birth control can help lower teens' risk of unintended pregnancy or contracting an STD.|
|Can You Still Get Genital Warts If You've Had All the Shots? Find out what the experts have to say.|
|Do You Have to See a Doctor to Find Out if You Have an STD? Find out what the experts have to say.|
|Telling Your Partner You Have an STD People who have STDs might feel apprehensive about discussing their disease with a partner. Here are some tips on talking to a partner when you have an STD.|
|Talking to Your Partner About STDs You know you should talk about sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) before the action starts, but if you're like most people the thought of having "the talk" makes you completely nervous. Welcome to STD Chat 101.|
|Everything You Wanted to Know About Puberty Voice cracking? Clothes don't fit? Puberty can be a confusing time, but learning about it doesn't have to be. Read all about it.|
|Should Girls Who Aren't Sexually Active Be Vaccinated Against HPV? Find out what the experts have to say.|
|About Birth Control: What Parents Need to Know Talking to your kids about sex can be daunting. But discussing issues like abstinence, STDs, and birth control can help lower teens' risk of unintended pregnancy or contracting an STD.|
|About Birth Control Before you consider having sex, you need to know how to protect yourself. Read this article to get the basics on birth control.|
|Condom Before you consider having sex, you need to know how to protect yourself. Read this article to find out how condoms work - and how well they protect against pregnancy and STDs.|
|I Have Bumps On My Penis. Is This Normal? Find out what the experts have to say.|
|I Can't Afford Treatment for Genital Warts. What Should I Do? Find out what the experts have to say.|
|Do I Have to Get All Three HPV Vaccine Shots? Find out what the experts have to say.|
|Your Daughter's First Gynecology Visit The idea of going to the gynecologist may make your daughter feel nervous. Here's how to make her feel more comfortable.|
|About Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) You've probably heard lots of discouraging news about sexually transmitted diseases. The good news is that STDs can be prevented. Find out how to protect yourself.|
|Can Getting the HPV Vaccine Help If I Already Have Genital Warts? Find out what the experts have to say.|
|Does the HPV Vaccine Cause Paralysis? Find out what the experts have to say.|
|HPV Vaccine The HPV vaccine can help protect against the virus that causes genital warts and may lead to some kinds of cancer. Find out more in this article for teens.|
|Is the HPV Vaccine Always a Shot? I'm Scared of Needles! Find out what the experts have to say.|
|What's Up With Warts? Nobody likes a wart. Find out why kids get them and how to get rid of them.|
|Warts Most warts are easy to treat and are rarely cause for alarm. Read this article for more information on warts and how to get rid of them.|
|Genital Warts (HPV) You've probably heard lots about sexually transmitted diseases. The good news is that STDs can be prevented. For information on how to protect yourself and how to treat genital warts, read this article.|
|Warts Many of us have had a wart somewhere on our bodies at some time. But other than being a nuisance, most warts are harmless.|
|Your Child's Immunizations: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Find out when and why your child needs to get this vaccine.|
What to expect when coming to Akron Children's
For healthcare providers and nurses
Residency & Fellowships, Medical Students, Nursing and Allied Health
For prospective employees and career-seekers
Our online community that provides inspirational stories and helpful information.