Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) that's usually caused by the herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV2), although it also can be caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1), which normally causes cold sores around the mouth.
In some cases, genital herpes causes blisters and pain in the genital area, but in others, it doesn't cause any symptoms, so someone who is infected could unknowingly pass it on to others. Sometimes people who have genital herpes only have one outbreak. Others have many outbreaks, which are less painful and shorter than the first episode.
There's no cure for herpes. Once someone has been infected with the herpes virus, it stays in the body. Medications can alleviate the discomfort of outbreaks and limit or sometimes prevent them. But it's better to prevent a herpes infection altogether. Anyone having sex (oral, anal, or vaginal) should take precautions against STDs and get screened for them regularly.
Symptoms of herpes outbreaks typically begin with pain, tenderness, or itching in the genital area and also might include fever and headache. Bumps and blisters may appear on the vagina, penis, scrotum, anus, thigh, or buttocks. Blisters soon open to form painful sores that can last up to 3 weeks.
Other symptoms may include: pain or a burning sensation during urination; muscle aches; and tender, swollen glands in the groin area. After the first herpes infection, the virus can lie dormant without causing any symptoms. But the virus might reactivate later, leading to sores that usually don't last as long as those during the first outbreak. The virus tends to reactivate following some type of stress, like a cold, an infection, hormone changes, menstrual periods, or even before a big test at school.
After the herpes blisters disappear, a person may think the virus has gone away — but it's actually hiding in the body. Both HSV1 and HSV2 can stay hidden away in the body until the next herpes outbreak, when the virus reactivates itself and the sores return.
Herpes is contagious and can be passed from person to person through any form of unprotected sex. This can occur even when there are no sores or blisters present. So people who are infected can unknowingly spread the infection to someone else.
To treat a genital herpes outbreak, a doctor may prescribe an antiviral medicine in the form of an ointment or pills. These medications can't cure HSV2, but they can help make a person feel better and shorten the duration of outbreaks or prevent them.
People who know they carry the herpes virus also can take medication daily as suppressive therapy. Suppressive therapy can decrease the number of (and sometimes prevent) outbreaks and also can lessen the chance the virus will be passed on to another person during sex.
If someone is being treated for herpes, any sexual partners also should be tested and treated for any diagnosed STDs.
Because herpes is spread through sexual contact, the best way to prevent it is to abstain from having sex. Sexual contact with more than one partner or with someone who has more than one partner further increases the risk of contracting any STD.
When properly and consistently used, condoms decrease the risk of STDs. Latex condoms provide greater protection than natural-membrane condoms. The female condom, made of polyurethane, is also considered effective against STDs.
Using douche can actually increase a female's risk of contracting STDs because it can change the natural flora (healthy bacteria) of the vagina and may flush STD pathogens higher into the genital tract.
A teen who is being treated for herpes also should be tested for other STDs, and should have time alone with the doctor to openly discuss issues like sexual activity. Not all teens will be comfortable talking with parents about these issues. But it's important to encourage them to talk to a trusted adult who can provide the facts.
Because many STDs might not cause obvious symptoms, teens often don't know when they're infected. It's important for all teens who have had sex to get screened regularly for STDs so that they don't lead to other more serious health problems.
If your teen is thinking of becoming sexually active or already has started having sex, it's important to discuss it. Make sure your teen knows how STDs can be spread (during anal, oral, or vaginal sex) and that these infections often don't have symptoms, so a partner might have an STD without knowing it.
It can be difficult to talk about STDs, but just as with any other medical issue, teens need this information to stay safe and healthy. Provide the facts, and let your child know where you stand.
It's also important that all teens have regular full physical exams — which can include screening for STDs. Your teen may want to see a gynecologist or a specialist in adolescent medicine to talk about sexual health issues. Community health organizations and sexual counseling centers in your local area also may be able to offer some guidance.
Reviewed by: Nicole A. Green, MD
Date reviewed: March 2013
|American Sexual Health Association This nonprofit organization is dedicated to preventing sexually transmitted diseases and offers hotlines for prevention and control of STDs.|
|Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) The CDC (the national public health institute of the United States) promotes health and quality of life by preventing and controlling disease, injury, and disability.|
|American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) The AAP is committed to the health and well-being of infants, adolescents, and young adults. The website offers news articles and tips on health for families.|
|Planned Parenthood Federation of America Planned Parenthood offers information on sexually transmitted diseases, birth control methods, and other issues of sexual health.|
|American Academy of Family Physicians This site, operated by the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP), provides information on family physicians and health care, a directory of family physicians, and resources on health conditions.|
|GYT - Get Yourself Talking and Get Yourself Tested This media campaign designed to get young people to talk with their health care providers and partners about the importance of getting tested for sexually transmitted diseases.|
|Is It Possible to Develop an Immunity to Genital Herpes? Find out what the experts have to say.|
|Genital Warts Genital warts, contracted through sexual contact, are caused by certain types of the human papillomavirus (HPV), which is one of the most common STDs.|
|Can You Get Genital Herpes From a Cold Sore? Find out what the experts have to say.|
|Questions and Answers About Sex Answering kids' questions about sex is a responsibility many parents dread. But by answering these questions honestly, parents can help foster healthy feelings about sex.|
|Do You Have to See a Doctor to Find Out if You Have an STD? Find out what the experts have to say.|
|STDs In many ways teens today are growing up faster than ever. That's why it's important to talk to your child about sex, particularly sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).|
|Telling Your Partner You Have an STD People who have STDs might feel apprehensive about discussing their disease with a partner. Here are some tips on talking to a partner when you have an STD.|
|Talking to Your Partner About STDs You know you should talk about sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) before the action starts, but if you're like most people the thought of having "the talk" makes you completely nervous. Welcome to STD Chat 101.|
|Genital Herpes You've probably heard lots of discouraging news about sexually transmitted diseases. The good news is that STDs can be prevented. Read about how to protect yourself.|
|About Birth Control: What Parents Need to Know Talking to your kids about sex can be daunting. But discussing issues like abstinence, STDs, and birth control can help lower teens' risk of unintended pregnancy or contracting an STD.|
|About Birth Control Before you consider having sex, you need to know how to protect yourself. Read this article to get the basics on birth control.|
|Talking to Your Partner About Condoms Some people - even those who are having sex - are embarrassed by the topic of condoms. Here are some tips for talking about condoms with your partner.|
|If Someone With Herpes Has No Sores, Can It Still Be Passed On? Find out what the experts have to say.|
|About Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) You've probably heard lots of discouraging news about sexually transmitted diseases. The good news is that STDs can be prevented. Find out how to protect yourself.|
|Genital Warts (HPV) You've probably heard lots about sexually transmitted diseases. The good news is that STDs can be prevented. For information on how to protect yourself and how to treat genital warts, read this article.|
What to expect when coming to Akron Children's
For healthcare providers and nurses
Residency & Fellowships, Medical Students, Nursing and Allied Health
For prospective employees and career-seekers
Our online community that provides inspirational stories and helpful information.