Just about everyone knows that we can't live without blood. And that the blood in our bodies is pumped by the heart through a network of arteries and veins. But beyond those blood basics, what do you know about that red stuff beneath your skin?
Blood is essential for good health because the body depends on a steady supply of fuel and oxygen to reach its billions of cells. Even the heart couldn't survive without blood flowing through the vessels that bring nourishment to its muscular walls. Blood also carries carbon dioxide and other waste materials to the lungs, kidneys, and digestive system; from there they are removed from the body.
Without blood, we couldn't keep warm or cool off, we couldn't fight infections, and we couldn't get rid of our own waste products.
So how exactly does blood do these things? How is it made, and what's in it? How does blood clot? It's time to learn a little about the mysterious, life-sustaining fluid called blood.
Two types of blood vessels carry blood throughout our bodies: The arteries carry oxygenated blood (blood that has received oxygen from the lungs) from the heart to the rest of the body. The blood then travels through the veins back to the heart and lungs, where it receives more oxygen. As the heart beats, you can feel blood traveling through the body at your pulse points — like the neck and the wrist — where large, blood-filled arteries run close to the surface of the skin.
The blood that flows through this network of veins and arteries is called whole blood. Whole blood contains three types of blood cells:
In babies and young children, blood cells are made in the bone marrow of many bones throughout the body. But as kids get older, blood cells are made mostly in the bone marrow of the vertebrae (the bones that make up the spine), ribs, pelvis, skull, sternum (the breastbone), and parts of the humerus (the upper arm bone) and femur (the thigh bone).
Blood cells travel through the circulatory system suspended in a yellowish fluid called plasma. Plasma is 90% water and contains nutrients, proteins, hormones, and waste products. Whole blood is a mixture of blood cells and plasma.
Red blood cells (RBCs, and also called erythrocytes, pronounced: ih-RITH-ruh-sytes) are shaped like slightly indented, flattened disks. RBCs contain an iron-rich protein called hemoglobin (pronounced: HEE-muh-glow-bun). Blood gets its bright red color when the hemoglobin in RBCs picks up oxygen in the lungs. As the blood travels through the body, the hemoglobin releases oxygen to the tissues.
The body contains more RBCs than any other type of cell, and each has a life span of about 4 months. Each day, the body produces new RBCs to replace those that die or are lost from the body.
White blood cells (WBCs, and also called leukocytes, pronounced: LOO-kuh-sytes) are a key part of the body's system for defending itself against infection. They can move in and out of the bloodstream to reach affected tissues. The blood contains far fewer white blood cells than red cells, although the body can increase production of WBCs to fight infection.
There are several types of white blood cells, and their life spans vary from a few days to months. New cells are constantly being formed in the bone marrow.
Several different parts of blood are involved in fighting infection. White blood cells called granulocytes (pronounced: GRAN-yuh-low-sytes) and lymphocytes (pronounced: LIM-fuh-sytes) travel along the walls of blood vessels. They fight germs such as bacteria and viruses and may also attempt to destroy cells that have become infected or have changed into cancer cells.
Certain types of WBCs produce antibodies, special proteins that recognize foreign materials and help the body destroy or neutralize them. Someone with an infection will often have a higher white cell count than when he or she is well because more WBCs are being produced or are entering the bloodstream to battle the infection. After the body has been challenged by some infections, lymphocytes "remember" how to make the specific antibodies that will quickly attack the same germ if it enters the body again.
Platelets (also called thrombocytes, pronounced: THROM-buh-sytes) are tiny oval-shaped cells made in the bone marrow. They help in the clotting process. When a blood vessel breaks, platelets gather in the area and help seal off the leak. Platelets survive only about 9 days in the bloodstream and are constantly being replaced by new cells.
Blood also contains important proteins called clotting factors, which are critical to the clotting process. Although platelets alone can plug small blood vessel leaks and temporarily stop or slow bleeding, the action of clotting factors is needed to produce a strong, stable clot.
Platelets and clotting factors work together to form solid lumps to seal leaks, wounds, cuts, and scratches and to prevent bleeding inside and on the surfaces of our bodies. The process of clotting is like a puzzle with interlocking parts. When the last part is in place, the clot happens — but if only one piece is missing, the final pieces can't come together.
When large blood vessels are severed (or cut), the body may not be able to repair itself through clotting alone. In these cases, dressings or stitches are used to help control bleeding.
In addition to the cells and clotting factors, blood contains other important substances, such as nutrients from the food that has been processed by the digestive system. Blood also carries hormones released by the endocrine glands and carries them to the body parts that need them.
An interesting thing about blood is that blood cells and some of the special proteins blood contains can be replaced or supplemented by giving a person blood from someone else. This process is called a transfusion. In addition to receiving whole-blood transfusions, people can also receive transfusions of a particular component of blood that they need. For example, someone can receive only platelets, red blood cells, or a clotting factor. When people donate blood, the whole blood can be separated into its different parts and used in this way.
Most of the time, blood functions normally, but sometimes, blood disorders or diseases can cause problems. Diseases of the blood that commonly affect young people can involve any or all of the three types of blood cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, or platelets) or the proteins and chemicals in the plasma that are responsible for clotting.
Some of the diseases and conditions involving the blood include:
The most common condition affecting the red blood cells of teens is anemia, a lower-than-normal number of red cells in the blood. Anemia is accompanied by a decrease in the amount of hemoglobin present in the blood. Anemia symptoms — such as pale skin, weakness, and a fast heart rate — happen because of the blood's reduced capacity for carrying oxygen. Causes of anemia can be grouped into two categories: anemia caused by insufficient RBC production and anemia caused by RBCs being destroyed too soon.
The body's clotting system depends on platelets as well as many clotting factors and other blood components. If a hereditary defect affects any of these components, a person can have a bleeding disorder. Common bleeding disorders include:
Other causes of clotting problems include chronic liver disease (clotting factors are produced in the liver) and vitamin K deficiency (the vitamin is necessary for the production of certain clotting factors).
Reviewed by: Yamini Durani, MD
Date reviewed: October 2012
|Aplastic Anemia and MDS International Foundation, Inc. This group serves as a resource directory for patient assistance and emotional support while specializing in aplastic anemia and myelodysplastic syndrome cases.|
|National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) The NHLBI provides the public with educational resources relating to the treatment of heart, blood vessel, lung, and blood diseases as well as sleep disorders.|
|Sickle Cell Disease Association of America This group provides education, advocacy, and other initiatives to promote awareness of and support for sickle cell disease programs.|
|Sickle Cell Information Center The mission of this site is to provide patient and professional education, news, research updates, and sickle cell resources.|
|American Red Cross The American Red Cross helps prepare communities for emergencies and works to keep people safe every day. The website has information on first aid, safety, and more.|
|American Association of Blood Banks This site of the American Association of Blood Banks describes blood banking and transfusions.|
|National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) The NMDP is a nonprofit organization that facilitates unrelated marrow and blood stem cell transplants for people with life-threatening diseases who do not have matching donors in their families.|
|National Hemophilia Foundation (NHF) The NHF's Web site contains information on bleeding disorders such as hemophilia.|
|American Society of Hematology This group provides information relating to blood, blood-forming tissues, and blood diseases.|
|World Federation of Hemophilia This organization is dedicated to introducing, improving, and maintaining care for persons with hemophilia and related disorders.|
|Sickle Cell Anemia More than 70,000 Americans have sickle cell anemia, which occurs when someone inherits two abnormal genes that cause red blood cells to change shape. Find out more.|
|von Willebrand Disease Excessive or prolonged bleeding could be a sign of a genetic disorder known as von Willebrand disease. Find out about this rare disorder in this article.|
|Blood Types Blood might look the same and do the same job, but tiny cell markers mean one person's body can reject another person's blood. Find out how blood types work in this article for teens.|
|Blood Transfusions About 5 million people a year get blood transfusions in the United States. This article explains why people need them and who donates the blood used.|
|Sickle Cell Disease: Mike's Story (Video) In this video Mike, 18, talks about living with sickle cell disease, including how he copes with pain episodes and manages his schoolwork.|
|Sickle Cell Disease: Theresa's Story (Video) Theresa, 16, talks about managing her sickle cell when she's feeling well as a way to ward off pain crises and other problems.|
|HIV and AIDS There is no cure for AIDS, which is why prevention is so important. Get the facts on HIV/AIDS, as well as how it affects the body and is treated, in this article.|
|Hemophilia For guys with a rare bleeding disorder called hemophilia, minor cuts and bruises can be a big deal. The good news is that it's a lot easier to control now than in the past, and most guys with hemophilia live pretty normal lives.|
|Anemia Anemia is common in teens because they undergo rapid growth spurts, when the body has a greater need for nutrients like iron. Learn about anemia, including how to lower your risk of getting it and how it's treated.|
|Donating Blood There's a 97% chance that someone you know will need a blood transfusion. Blood donors — especially donors with certain blood types — are always in demand. Find out what's involved in this article for teens.|
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