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Diseases & Conditions

  • 5 Ways to Prepare for an Allergy Emergency 5 Ways to Prepare for an Allergy Emergency

    Being prepared for an allergy emergency will help you, your child, and other caregivers respond in the event of a serious reaction.

  • A Cold or Allergies: Which Is It? A Cold or Allergies: Which Is It?

    Is it a cold or allergies? Find out what the experts have to say.

  • Air Pollution and Asthma Air Pollution and Asthma

    Ground-level ozone and other air pollutants can trigger asthma flare-ups. But there are steps you can take to minimize your child's exposure.

  • All About Allergies All About Allergies

    Millions of Americans, including many kids, have an allergy. Find out how allergies are diagnosed and how to keep them under control.

  • Allergies Allergies

    Explore more than 20 articles in English and Spanish about all aspects of allergies in children.

  • Allergy Shots Allergy Shots

    Many kids battle allergies year-round, and some can't control their symptoms with medications. For them, allergy shots (or allergen immunotherapy) can be beneficial.

  • Can Kids Get Allergies All Year? Can Kids Get Allergies All Year?

    Find out what the experts have to say.

  • Celiac Disease Celiac Disease

    Kids who have celiac disease, a disorder that makes their bodies react to gluten, can't eat certain kinds of foods. Find out more - including what foods are safe and where to find them.

  • Do Allergies Cause Asthma? Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    Allergies don't cause asthma, but kids who have allergies are more likely to get asthma.

  • Eczema Eczema

    Eczema can be an itchy nuisance and cause scratching that makes the problem worse. Fortunately, more than half of the kids who have eczema today will be over it by the time they're teenagers.

  • Egg Allergy Egg Allergy

    Helping your child manage an egg allergy means reading food labels carefully, being aware of what he or she eats, and carrying the right medicines in case of an allergic reaction.

  • Environmental Control Measures Environmental Control Measures

    Families of kids with allergies should use environmental control measures that reduce exposure to the child's allergy triggers. Here's how to begin.

  • Fish Allergy Fish Allergy

    Fish allergy can cause a serious reaction. Find out how to keep kids safe.

  • Food Allergies Food Allergies

    Food allergies can cause serious and even deadly reactions in kids, so it's important to know how to feed a child with food allergies and to prevent reactions.

  • Food Allergies and Food Sensitivities Food Allergies and Food Sensitivities

    Find more than 30 articles in English and Spanish about all aspects of food allergies in children.

  • Going to School With Food Allergies Going to School With Food Allergies

    With preparation and education, a child with a food allergy can stay safe at school.

  • Henoch-Schönlein Purpura (HSP) Henoch-Schönlein Purpura (HSP)

    Most kids who develop this inflammation of the blood vessels (marked by a raised red and purple rash) make a full recovery and have no long-term problems.

  • Hives (Urticaria) Hives (Urticaria)

    Has your child broken out in welts? It could be a case of the hives. Learn how to soothe itchy bumps and help your child feel better.

  • If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should I Look for When Reading Food Labels? If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should I Look for When Reading Food Labels?

    Food labels can help you spot allergens your child must avoid. Find out more.

  • Insect Sting Allergy Insect Sting Allergy

    Insect sting allergies can cause serious reactions. Find out how to keep kids safe.

  • Kawasaki Disease Kawasaki Disease

    Kawasaki disease is most common among children of Japanese and Korean descent, but can affect all ethnic groups. The first symptom is a high fever that lasts for at least 5 days.

  • Milk Allergy Milk Allergy

    Milk allergy can cause serious reactions. Find out how to keep kids safe.

  • Milk Allergy in Infants Milk Allergy in Infants

    Almost all infants are fussy at times. But some are very fussy because they have an allergy to the protein in cow's milk, which is the basis for most commercial baby formulas.

  • Nut and Peanut Allergy Nut and Peanut Allergy

    If your child is allergic to nuts or peanuts, it's essential to learn what foods might contain them and how to avoid them.

  • Poison Ivy Poison Ivy

    About 60% to 80% of all people get a reaction to poison ivy. Check out this article for tips on what to do and how to avoid poison ivy.

  • Psoriasis Psoriasis

    Psoriasis causes skin cells to build up on the surface of the skin where they form itchy, red patches and thick scales. Find out what causes psoriasis and how to help your child deal with it.

  • Seasonal Allergies (Hay Fever) Seasonal Allergies (Hay Fever)

    At various times of the year, pollen and mold spores trigger the cold-like symptoms associated with seasonal allergies. Most kids find relief through reduced exposure to allergens or with medicines.

  • Serious Allergic Reactions (Anaphylaxis) Serious Allergic Reactions (Anaphylaxis)

    Kids with severe allergies can be at risk for a sudden, serious allergic reaction called anaphylaxis. The good news is that when treated properly, anaphylaxis can be managed.

  • Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Severe Combined Immunodeficiency

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is an immune deficiency that can be successfully treated if it's identified early.

  • Shellfish Allergy Shellfish Allergy

    Shellfish allergy can cause serious reactions. Find out common symptoms of allergic reactions and how to respond.

  • Soy Allergy Soy Allergy

    Soy is found in many foods and it's a common food allegy. Find out how to help kids with an allergy stay safe.

  • Stem Cell Transplants Stem Cell Transplants

    Stem cells help rebuild a weakened immune system. Stem cell transplants are effective treatments for a wide range of diseases, including cancer.

  • What Is Oral Allergy Syndrome? What Is Oral Allergy Syndrome?

    Oral allergy syndrome can cause an itchy mouth and throat. Find out more.

  • What Is Skin Testing for Allergies? What Is Skin Testing for Allergies?

    A scratch or skin prick test is a common way doctors find out more about a person's allergies.

  • What's the Difference Between a Food Allergy and a Food Intolerance? What's the Difference Between a Food Allergy and a Food Intolerance?

    Food allergies and food intolerances, like lactose intolerance, are not the same. Find out more.

  • Wheat Allergy Wheat Allergy

    Wheat allergy can cause serious reactions. Find out how to help kids with an allergy stay safe.

  • Words to Know: Transplants Words to Know: Transplants

    Easy-to-understand definitions of some key transplant terms.

  • Fibromyalgia Fibromyalgia

    The chronic condition fibromyalgia causes widespread pain in the muscles, joints, and other areas of the body. Lifestyle changes and other strategies can help kids who have it feel better.

  • Henoch-Schönlein Purpura (HSP) Henoch-Schönlein Purpura (HSP)

    Most kids who develop this inflammation of the blood vessels (marked by a raised red and purple rash) make a full recovery and have no long-term problems.

  • Jumper's Knee (Patellar Tendonitis) Jumper's Knee (Patellar Tendonitis)

    Jumper's knee is an inflammation or injury of the patellar tendon. Although it can seem minor, it's actually a serious condition that can get worse over time and ultimately require surgery if not treated.

  • Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    In juvenile idiopathic arthritis (also called juvenile rheumatoid arthritis)), a person can develop swollen, warm, and painful joints. Learn more.

  • Living With Lupus Living With Lupus

    Lupus is known as an autoimmune disease in which a person's immune system mistakenly works against the body's own tissues.

  • Asthma Asthma

    Asthma makes it hard to breathe. But with treatment, the condition can be managed so that kids can still do the things they love. Learn all about asthma.

  • Asthma Center Asthma Center

    Asthma keeps more kids home from school than any other chronic illness. Learn how to help your child manage the condition, stay healthy, and stay in school.

  • Asthma Flare-Ups Asthma Flare-Ups

    Find out how to deal with — and help prevent — asthma flare-ups ("attacks"), which is when asthma symptoms get worse.

  • Asthma Medicines Asthma Medicines

    Asthma medicine comes in two main types: quick-relief and long-term control medicines. Even if a child takes a long-term control medicine regularly, quick-relief medicine is still needed to handle flare-ups.

  • Asthma Triggers Asthma Triggers

    Triggers — things in the air, weather conditions, or activities — can cause asthma flare-ups. By knowing and avoiding triggers, you'll help lessen your child's asthma symptoms.

  • Can Kids and Teens With Asthma Play Sports? Can Kids and Teens With Asthma Play Sports?

    Kids and teens who have asthma can and do play sports. But some activities are better than others - find out more.

  • Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma? Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma?

    Sometimes, the weather can affect a child's asthma symptoms. Here are some tips for dealing with it.

  • Creating an Asthma-Safe Home Creating an Asthma-Safe Home

    If your child has asthma, you can create the best home environment possible by knowing about asthma triggers and eliminating or minimizing exposure to them.

  • Dealing With Triggers: Pets Dealing With Triggers: Pets

    Do pets make your child's allergies or asthma worse? Here's how to handle it.

  • Definition: Exercise-Induced Asthma Definition: Exercise-Induced Asthma

    Some people have exercise-induced asthma, which means that their asthma symptoms (such as coughing, wheezing, or shortness of breath) are triggered by exercise or physical activity.

  • Exercise-Induced Asthma Exercise-Induced Asthma

    Many kids with asthma have symptoms when they exercise. But with careful management, they usually can do anything their peers can do.

  • Handling an Asthma Flare-Up Handling an Asthma Flare-Up

    Because they can be life threatening, asthma flare-ups can and should be treated at their earliest stages. So it's important to recognize their early warning signs.

  • Inhaler or Nebulizer: Which One Should My Child Use? Inhaler or Nebulizer: Which One Should My Child Use?

    Nebulizers and inhalers deliver asthma medicine to the lungs, and they work equally well when the correct technique is used.

  • Managing Asthma Managing Asthma

    Asthma control can take a little time and energy to master, but it's worth the effort. Learn more about ways to manage your child's asthma.

  • My Baby Is Wheezing. Is it Asthma? My Baby Is Wheezing. Is it Asthma?

    Find out what the experts have to say.

  • School and Asthma School and Asthma

    Asthma flare-ups are the main reason kids with asthma miss school. But well-managed asthma is far less likely to result in a sick day.

  • Traveling and Asthma Traveling and Asthma

    With some careful planning, kids with asthma can enjoy all the benefits of a trip away from home.

  • What Are Nebulizers and Inhalers? What Are Nebulizers and Inhalers?

    Find out how these asthma tools help kids take their medicines.

  • What's a Peak Flow Meter? What's a Peak Flow Meter?

    An inexpensive, portable device called a peak flow meter measures lung function in kids with asthma, which can help them manage the condition and avoid major flare-ups.

  • What's an Asthma Action Plan? What's an Asthma Action Plan?

    Find out how this written plan can help you care for your child with asthma.

  • When to Go to the ER if Your Child Has Asthma When to Go to the ER if Your Child Has Asthma

    If your child has asthma, find out when you need to go to the ER.

  • About Body Basics

    Remember the biology class you had in high school? Well, maybe you don't or maybe now that you have a child, your interest in how the body works has grown.

  • Blood Blood

    Blood is vital to bodily function. Read this article for the basics about blood, blood cells, blood diseases, and more.

  • Bones, Muscles, and Joints Bones, Muscles, and Joints

    Without bones, muscles, and joints, we couldn't stand, walk, run, or even sit. The musculoskeletal system supports our bodies, protects our organs from injury, and enables movement.

  • Brain and Nervous System Brain and Nervous System

    The brain controls everything we do, and is often likened to the central computer within a vast, complicated communication network, working at lightning speed.

  • Digestive System Digestive System

    The digestive process starts even before the first bite of food. Find out more about the digestive system and how our bodies break down and absorb the food we eat.

  • Endocrine System Endocrine System

    The glands of the endocrine system and the hormones they release affect almost every cell, organ, and function of our bodies.

  • Eyes Eyes

    The eyes are small compared with most of the body's other organs, but their structure is incredibly complex. Learn more about eyes, vision, and common problems with both.

  • Female Reproductive System Female Reproductive System

    Learning about the female reproductive system, what it does, and the problems that can affect it can help you better understand your daughter's reproductive health.

  • Heart and Circulatory System Heart and Circulatory System

    The heart and circulatory system are our body's lifeline, delivering blood to the body's tissues. Brush up on your ticker with this body basics article.

  • Immune System Immune System

    The immune system, composed of special cells, proteins, tissues, and organs that protect against germs and microorganisms, is the body's defense against disease.

  • Kidneys and Urinary Tract Kidneys and Urinary Tract

    The bean-shaped kidneys, each about the size of a child's fist, are essential to our health. Their most important role is to filter blood and produce urine.

  • Lungs and Respiratory System Lungs and Respiratory System

    By the time we're 70 years old, we will have taken at least 600 million breaths. All of this breathing couldn't happen without the respiratory system.

  • Male Reproductive System Male Reproductive System

    Understanding the male reproductive system, what it does, and problems that can affect it can help you better understand your son's reproductive health.

  • Metabolism Metabolism

    Brush up on metabolism basics - including common metabolic disorders - in this article.

  • Mouth and Teeth Mouth and Teeth

    Our mouth and teeth play an important role in our daily lives. Here's a course on the basics - including common problems of the mouth and teeth.

  • Skin, Hair, and Nails Skin, Hair, and Nails

    Our skin protects the network of tissues, muscles, bones, nerves, blood vessels, and everything else inside our bodies. Hair and nails are actually modified types of skin.

  • Spleen and Lymphatic System Spleen and Lymphatic System

    The lymphatic system is an extensive drainage network that helps keep bodily fluid levels in balance and defends the body against infections.

  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries

    ACL injuries - which can happen in active and athletic kids - happen when excessive pressure is put on the knee joint, resulting in a torn ligament.

  • Arthrogryposis Arthrogryposis

    Children with arthrogryposis have stiff joints that don't move well. Treatments like splinting, bracing, therapy, and surgery help kids get the best range of motion.

  • Becker Muscular Dystrophy Becker Muscular Dystrophy

    Becker muscular dystrophy is a genetic disorder that gradually makes the body's muscles weaker and smaller. It causes less severe problems than the most common type of MD, Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

  • Blount Disease Blount Disease

    Blount disease is a growth disorder that causes the bones of the lower leg to bow outward. This gets worse if it's not treated, so early diagnosis is very important.

  • Broken Bones Broken Bones

    Many kids will have a broken bone at some point. Here's what to expect.

  • Broken Collarbone (Clavicle Fracture) Broken Collarbone (Clavicle Fracture)

    Learn about broken collarbones (or clavicle fractures), a common sports injury in kids.

  • Buckle Fractures Buckle Fractures

    A buckle or torus fracture is a type of broken bone. One side of the bone bends, raising a little buckle, without breaking the other side of the bone.

  • Casts Casts

    Casts keep bones and other tissues in place while they heal. Here's what to expect, and how to care for casts.

  • Cervical Kyphosis Cervical Kyphosis

    Cervical kyphosis is a curve at the top of the spine (backbone). Usually, the condition isn't serious, but a pinch in the spinal cord can cause nerve damage.

  • Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is a neurological disorder. It causes muscle weakness and numbness, most commonly in the arms and legs.

  • Chest Wall Disorder: Pectus Carinatum Chest Wall Disorder: Pectus Carinatum

    Pectus carinatum, sometimes called pigeon chest, is a deformity of the chest wall in which the chest juts out.

  • Chest Wall Disorder: Pectus Excavatum Chest Wall Disorder: Pectus Excavatum

    Pectus excavatum is a deformity of the chest wall that causes several ribs and the breastbone to grow abnormally, giving the chest a "caved-in" appearance.

  • Chest Wall Disorder: Poland Syndrome Chest Wall Disorder: Poland Syndrome

    Poland syndrome is a condition where a child is born with missing or underdeveloped chest muscles.

  • CLOVES Syndrome CLOVES Syndrome

    CLOVES syndrome is a very rare genetic disorder that causes vascular, skin, spinal, and bone or joint abnormalities.

  • Clubfoot Clubfoot

    Clubfoot is a birth defect that makes one or both of a baby's feet point down and turn in. Most clubfeet can be successfully corrected using the nonsurgical Ponseti method.

  • Comminuted Fractures Comminuted Fractures

    A comminuted fracture is a type of broken bone. The bone is broken into more than two pieces.

  • Common Childhood Orthopedic Conditions Common Childhood Orthopedic Conditions

    Flatfeet, toe walking, pigeon toes, bowlegs, and knock-knees. Lots of kids have these common orthopedic conditions, but are they medical problems that can and should be corrected?

  • Costochondritis Costochondritis

    This type of chest pain may seem scary at first, but it's usually nothing to worry about. Most kids begin to feel better on their own after a few days.

  • Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip

    Babies are born with this hip deformity or develop it soon after birth. With early treatent, kids can avoid long-term hip problems.

  • Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is the most common form of muscular dystrophy. It gradually makes the body's muscles weaker.

  • Dwarfism Dwarfism

    Dwarfism is a condition that is characterized by short stature. Many of the possible complications of dwarfism are treatable, so that people of short stature can lead healthy, active lives.

  • External Fixator: Pin Care External Fixator: Pin Care

    External fixators used for limb lengthening have pins that go through the skin and into the bone. It's important to know how to care for the pins at home to prevent infections.

  • Fibromyalgia Fibromyalgia

    The chronic condition fibromyalgia causes widespread pain in the muscles, joints, and other areas of the body. Lifestyle changes and other strategies can help kids who have it feel better.

  • Fibular Hemimelia Fibular Hemimelia

    Babies who have fibular hemimelia are born with a short or missing fibula. Experts who treat bone problems have several options to help kids with a hemimelia.

  • Frequently Asked Questions About Casts Frequently Asked Questions About Casts

    Getting a cast often comes with plenty of questions. Read on for answers to some frequent inquiries many parents - and kids - may have about casts.

  • Ganglion Cysts Ganglion Cysts

    Ganglion cysts are lumps that, most commonly, appear on the back of the wrist. These cysts are not cancerous and are easily treated.

  • Greenstick Fractures Greenstick Fractures

    A greenstick fracture is a type of broken bone. The bone cracks on one side only, not all the way through the bone.

  • Growth Plate Fractures Growth Plate Fractures

    Injuries to growth plates, which produce new bone tissue and determine the final length and shape of bones in adulthood, must be treated so that bones heal properly.

  • Guillain-Barré Syndrome Guillain-Barré Syndrome

    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a rare medical condition that affects the nerves outside the brain and spinal cord. Luckily, most people who get GBS recover.

  • How Broken Bones Heal How Broken Bones Heal

    Broken bones have an amazing ability to heal, especially in kids. Full healing can take time, but new bone usually forms a few weeks after an injury.

  • Idiopathic Scoliosis Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Kids of any age can have idiopathic scoliosis, but it's usually found when a child begins going through puberty. Find out more about the signs of and treatment for idiopathic scoliosis.

  • In-toeing & Out-toeing in Toddlers In-toeing & Out-toeing in Toddlers

    What is in-toeing and how will it affect your child? Find out what the experts have to say.

  • Incentive Spirometer Incentive Spirometer

    An incentive spirometer trains people to take slow, deep breaths. It's used during recovery from some types of surgery or as a way to manage illness. Find out how it works.

  • Infant Torticollis Infant Torticollis

    Babies with this condition have trouble turning their heads, due to muscle tightness. Simple stretching exercises and physical therapy can help babies get better.

  • Jumper's Knee (Patellar Tendonitis) Jumper's Knee (Patellar Tendonitis)

    Jumper's knee is an inflammation or injury of the patellar tendon. Although it can seem minor, it's actually a serious condition that can get worse over time and ultimately require surgery if not treated.

  • Knee Injuries Knee Injuries

    Knee injuries are common among young athletes. Learn about causes, treatments, and prevention.

  • Kyphosis Kyphosis

    Everyone's spine is slightly rounded forward at a gentle angle. If this angle is too pronounced, more than 50 degrees or so, it's called kyphosis, also known as roundback or hunchback.

  • Leg Length Discrepancy Leg Length Discrepancy

    Leg length discrepancy is when someone’s legs are different lengths. For a big difference or one that's likely to get worse, treatment is recommended.

  • Limb Deformities Limb Deformities

    Kids with limb deformities have differences in the way their arms or legs are shaped. Some don't need treatment, For those that do, doctors have different options.

  • Limb Lengthening Surgery: External Fixator Limb Lengthening Surgery: External Fixator

    Limb lengthening surgery is done when someone has a leg length discrepancy (one leg is shorter than the other). Sometimes this is treated with an external fixator.

  • Limb Lengthening Surgery: Internal Lengthening Device Limb Lengthening Surgery: Internal Lengthening Device

    Limb lengthening surgery is done when someone has a leg length discrepancy (one leg is shorter than the other). Sometimes this is treated with an internal lengthening device (a rod with a magnet).

  • Marfan Syndrome Marfan Syndrome

    Marfan syndrome affects the body's connective tissue and can cause problems in the eyes, joints, and heart. Even though the disease has no cure, doctors can successfully treat just about all of its symptoms.

  • Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) Injuries Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) Injuries

    MCL injuries can happen in active and athletic kids, when excessive pressure is put on the knee joint, resulting in a torn ligament.

  • Muscular Dystrophy Muscular Dystrophy

    Muscular dystrophy is a disorder that weakens a person's muscles over time. People who have the disease can gradually lose the ability to do everyday tasks.

  • Nursemaid's Elbow Nursemaid's Elbow

    Young kids are at risk for a common injury known as nursemaid's elbow, which is easy for a doctor to fix. To help prevent it, never swing or lift a child by the lower arm, hands, or wrists.

  • Osgood-Schlatter Disease Osgood-Schlatter Disease

    Osgood-Schlatter disease (OSD) is one of the most common causes of knee pain in adolescents. It's really not a disease, but an overuse injury.

  • Osteogenesis Imperfecta (Brittle Bone Disease) Osteogenesis Imperfecta (Brittle Bone Disease)

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (or brittle bone disease) prevents the body from building strong bones. People with OI have bones that might break easily.

  • Osteomyelitis Osteomyelitis

    Osteomyelitis is a bone infection that can happen when germs enter an open wound. The easiest way to prevent it is to keep skin clean.

  • Panner's Disease Panner's Disease

    Panner's disease is a rare but painful bone condition linked to overuse of the elbow. Even though recovery can be slow, the condition usually doesn't cause any long-term problems.

  • Pectus Carinatum: Bracing Pectus Carinatum: Bracing

    Pectus carinatum, sometimes called pigeon chest, is when the chest juts out. Sometimes it's treated by wearing a brace.

  • Pectus Excavatum: The Nuss Procedure Pectus Excavatum: The Nuss Procedure

    The Nuss procedure is a surgery to correct severe pectus excavatum. It’s considered "minimally invasive" because only a few small incisions are needed.

  • Pectus Excavatum: Vacuum Bell Device Pectus Excavatum: Vacuum Bell Device

    Health care providers sometimes suggest that kids use a vacuum bell to help correct pectus excavatum, a condition that causes a caved-in chest.

  • Polydactyly Polydactyly

    Polydactyly is when a baby is born with an extra finger on the hand or an extra toe on the foot. It can be on one or both hands or feet.

  • Pompe Disease Pompe Disease

    Pompe disease is a rare genetic condition that makes muscles get weaker over time.

  • Radial Dysplasia Radial Dysplasia

    Babies with radial dysplasia (also called radial club hand) are born with a short or missing radial bone. This makes the wrist turn in.

  • Scoliosis Scoliosis

    Scoliosis makes a person’s spine curve from side to side. Large curves can cause health problems like pain or breathing trouble. Health care providers treat scoliosis with back braces or surgery when needed.

  • Scoliosis: Bracing Scoliosis: Bracing

    Some kids with scoliosis wear a brace to help stop their curve from getting worse as they grow. Find out more about the different types of scoliosis braces.

  • Sever's Disease Sever's Disease

    Sever's disease, a common heel injury in kids, is due to inflammation (swelling) of the growth plate in the heel. While painful, it's only temporary and has no long-term effects.

  • Should I Worry About the Way My Son Walks? Should I Worry About the Way My Son Walks?

    Find out what the experts have to say.

  • Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis (SCFE) Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis (SCFE)

    Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is a shift at the upper part of the thighbone, or femur, that results in a weakened hip joint. Fortunately, when caught early, most cases of SCFE can be treated successfully.

  • Spinal Fusion Surgery Spinal Fusion Surgery

    A spinal fusion is a surgical procedure that's done to stabilize or straighten the bones in the back. It can help kids and teens with scoliosis.

  • Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA)

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a condition that causes muscle weakness and atrophy. There's no cure, but therapy and other treatments can help most people who have SMA.

  • Spinal Muscular Atrophy: Steven's Story (Video) Spinal Muscular Atrophy: Steven's Story (Video)

    A teen athlete talks about why he won't let his condition take him out of the game.

  • Splints Splints

    A splint is a support device that keeps an injured area from moving. Doctors often use splints to hold bones and joints in place so they can heal after a fracture.

  • Spondylolisthesis Spondylolisthesis

    Spondylolisthesis happens when a bone in the back slips forward and out of place. In kids and teens, it’s a common cause of lower back pain.

  • Spondylolysis Spondylolysis

    Spondylolysis is a very common cause of lower back pain in kids, teens, and young adults. It usually heals quickly with rest and other nonsurgical treatments.

  • Stress Fractures Stress Fractures

    A stress fracture is a tiny crack in a bone. They usually happen from repeating the same movement over and over.

  • Symbrachydactyly Symbrachydactyly

    Babies with symbrachydactyly are born with short often webbed fingers. Some might be missing fingers.

  • Syndactyly Syndactyly

    Syndactyly is when a baby is born with two or more fingers or toes joined or "webbed" together.

  • The Ponseti Clubfoot Brace: Tips for Parents The Ponseti Clubfoot Brace: Tips for Parents

    Correcting your child’s clubfoot begins with a series of casts and ends with a brace. Here's how to help your child wear it successfully.

  • The Ponseti Method: Bracing Phase The Ponseti Method: Bracing Phase

    The Ponseti method to treat clubfoot is done in two phases – the casting phase gradually moves the foot to the correct position, and the bracing phase makes sure it stays there. Learn about bracing.

  • The Ponseti Method: Casting Phase The Ponseti Method: Casting Phase

    The Ponseti method to treat clubfoot is done in two phases – the casting phase gradually moves the foot to the correct position, and the bracing phase makes sure it stays there. Learn about casting.

  • The Ravitch Procedure The Ravitch Procedure

    The Ravitch procedure is a surgery to correct severe pectus carinatum and pectus excavatum.

  • Thumb Duplication Thumb Duplication

    Babies with thumb duplication (or thumb polydactyly) are born with an extra thumb on one or both hands. Most will have surgery to fix the problem.

  • Thumb Hypoplasia Thumb Hypoplasia

    Babies with thumb hypoplasia are born with a thumb that is smaller than normal, or with the thumb missing completely.

  • Torticollis Torticollis

    Torticollis is a common condition that causes a stiff neck or neck pain that makes it difficult for kids to turn their heads.

  • Ulnar Dysplasia Ulnar Dysplasia

    Babies with ulnar dysplasia (also called ulnar club hand) are born with a short or missing ulnar bone. This makes the wrist turn out.

  • What Is Pompe Disease? What Is Pompe Disease?

    Find out what the experts have to say.

  • What's a Halo? What's a Halo?

    Much like a fiberglass cast holds a broken arm or leg in place, a "halo" with vest holds a child's head and neck in place after a spinal injury so that spinal bones can heal.

  • A to Z: Bell's Palsy A to Z: Bell's Palsy

    Learn about complications of viral infections and conditions that can affect the face and nervous system.

  • Abusive Head Trauma (Shaken Baby Syndrome) Abusive Head Trauma (Shaken Baby Syndrome)

    Abusive head trauma (AHT) is the leading cause of death in child abuse cases in the United States. AHT results from injuries caused by someone vigorously shaking an infant.

  • Asperger Syndrome Asperger Syndrome

    Asperger syndrome (AS) is a kind of autism. Most kids with AS are on the "high-functioning” end of the autism spectrum, and early intervention services can help many of them.

  • Ataxic Cerebral Palsy Ataxic Cerebral Palsy

    Kids with ataxic CP have trouble with balance. They may walk with their legs farther apart than other kids. And they can have trouble knowing exactly where something is.

  • Bell's Palsy Bell's Palsy

    Bell's palsy is a temporary weakness or paralysis of the muscles on one side of the face. Though it can be alarming, it typically goes away in a matter of weeks.

  • Benign Rolandic Epilepsy Benign Rolandic Epilepsy

    Kids with benign rolandic epilepsy of childhood (BREC) have seizures that involve twitching, numbness, or tingling of the face or tongue.

  • Brain and Nervous System Cancers Brain and Nervous System Cancers

    These cancers are the most common type of cancer in children. When discovered early, they often can be cured.

  • Brain Tumors Brain Tumors

    Brain tumors are the second most common group of childhood cancers. Treatment requires a very specialized plan involving a team of medical specialists.

  • Burners and Stingers Burners and Stingers

    Burners (or stingers) are injuries to the nerve network in the shoulder, arm, forearm, hand, and fingers. They're pretty common in sports and usually go away quickly.

  • Cerebral Palsy Cerebral Palsy

    Cerebral palsy (CP) affects a child's muscle tone, movement, and more. This article explains causes, diagnosis, treatment, and coping.

  • Chiari Malformation Chiari Malformation

    Many kids with this brain condition aren't bothered by it. Those who have symptoms can often find relief with medicines or surgery.

  • Childhood Absence Epilepsy (CAE) Childhood Absence Epilepsy (CAE)

    Kids with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) have seizures where they "blank out" for a few seconds. Most kids will outgrow CAE.

  • Concussions Concussions

    Concussions are serious injuries that can be even more serious if kids don't get the time and rest needed to heal them completely.

  • Dyskinetic Cerebral Palsy Dyskinetic Cerebral Palsy

    Dyskinetic CP, or athetoid CP, is a type of CP. Kids with dyskinetic CP have trouble controlling muscle movement.

  • Epilepsy Epilepsy

    Epilepsy causes electrical signals in the brain to misfire, which can lead to multiple seizures. Anyone can get epilepsy at any age, but most new diagnoses are in kids.

  • Epilepsy Surgery Epilepsy Surgery

    Epilepsy surgery is an operation done on the brain to reduce or stop seizures.

  • Febrile Seizures Febrile Seizures

    Febrile seizures are full-body convulsions caused by high fevers that affect young kids. Although they can be frightening, they usually stop on their own and don't cause any other health problems.

  • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    If a woman drinks alcohol during her pregnancy, her baby could be born with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), which causes a wide range of physical, behavioral, and learning problems.

  • Guillain-Barré Syndrome Guillain-Barré Syndrome

    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a rare medical condition that affects the nerves outside the brain and spinal cord. Luckily, most people who get GBS recover.

  • Headaches Headaches

    Headaches affect kids as well as adults. Learn about common causes and when to talk to a doctor.

  • Hydrocephalus Hydrocephalus

    Often called "water on the brain," hydrocephalus can cause babies' and young children's heads to swell to make room for excess cerebrospinal fluid. Learn how this condition is managed.

  • Infantile Spasms Infantile Spasms

    Infantile spasms (IS) is a seizure disorder in babies. The spasms usually go away by age 4, but many babies with IS will have other kinds of epilepsy later.

  • Intractable Epilepsy Intractable Epilepsy

    Intractable epilepsy is when a child's seizures can't be controlled by medicines. Doctors may recommend surgery or other treatments for intractable seizures.

  • Is There a Connection Between Vaccines and Autism? Is There a Connection Between Vaccines and Autism?

    Find out what the experts have to say.

  • Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy

    Kids with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) have one or more of several different kinds of seizures, which begin around the age of puberty.

  • Ketogenic Diet Ketogenic Diet

    A ketogenic diet is a strict high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet that can reduce, and sometimes stop, seizures.

  • Lead Poisoning Lead Poisoning

    Long-term exposure to lead can cause serious health problems, particularly in young kids, so it's important to find out whether your child might be at risk for lead exposure.

  • Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome

    Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) is a seizure disorder. Children with LGS have several different kinds of seizures.

  • Lyme Disease Lyme Disease

    Lyme disease can affect the skin, joints, nervous system, and other organ systems. If diagnosed quickly and treated with antibiotics, Lyme disease in kids is almost always treatable.

  • Medulloblastoma Medulloblastoma

    Medulloblastoma is a type of brain tumor. Most brain tumors in children are medulloblastoma.

  • Neurocutaneous Syndromes Neurocutaneous Syndromes

    Neurocutaneous syndromes are genetic disorders that lead to tumor growth in various parts of the body. Learn how to maximize the quality of life for children with these diseases.

  • Neurofibromatosis Neurofibromatosis

    Neurofibromatosis (NF) can cause tumors to grow on nerve tissue, producing skin and bone abnormalities. Learn more about NF, including how it's diagnosed and treated.

  • Newborn Brachial Plexus Injuries Newborn Brachial Plexus Injuries

    During childbirth, a brachial plexus injury can happen if the baby's neck is stretched to one side.

  • Pompe Disease Pompe Disease

    Pompe disease is a rare genetic condition that makes muscles get weaker over time.

  • Raising a Child With Autism: Paige and Iain's Story Raising a Child With Autism: Paige and Iain's Story

    When their son was diagnosed with autism at age 3, Paige and Iain were devastated. Since then, Lochlan has gotten the treatment and services he needs, and is learning about the world around him. Read their story.

  • Spastic Cerebral Palsy Spastic Cerebral Palsy

    Kids with spastic CP have stiff muscles in the upper part of the body, the lower part, or both.

  • Spina Bifida Spina Bifida

    Spina bifida is a birth defect that involves the incomplete development of the spinal cord or its coverings. It's usually detected before a baby is born and treated right away.

  • Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA)

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a condition that causes muscle weakness and atrophy. There's no cure, but therapy and other treatments can help most people who have SMA.

  • Strokes Strokes

    This "brain attack" happens when blood flow to the brain stops, even for a brief second. Signs and symptoms of strokes in kids are similar to those in adults.

  • Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Kids with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) have seizures that start in one of the temporal lobes of the brain. Seizures usually get better with medicine.

  • Tourette Syndrome Tourette Syndrome

    Tourette syndrome is a condition that causes uncontrolled sudden, repetitive muscle movements and sounds known as tics.

  • Tuberous Sclerosis Tuberous Sclerosis

    Tuberous sclerosis is a condition that causes the growth of benign tumors. Symptoms can range from mild to severe.

  • What Is Acute Flaccid Myelitis? What Is Acute Flaccid Myelitis?

    Acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) is a rare but serious condition that affects the nervous system.

  • What Is Pompe Disease? What Is Pompe Disease?

    Find out what the experts have to say.

  • Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common type of childhood cancer. Because it develops and gets worse quickly, prompt treatment is very important. With treatment, most kids are cured.

  • Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)

    Among kids with leukemia, 20% have this form of the blood cancer. With treatment, most recover.

  • Brain and Nervous System Cancers Brain and Nervous System Cancers

    These cancers are the most common type of cancer in children. When discovered early, they often can be cured.

  • Brain Tumors Brain Tumors

    Brain tumors are the second most common group of childhood cancers. Treatment requires a very specialized plan involving a team of medical specialists.

  • Cancer Center Cancer Center

    From treatments and prevention to coping with the emotional aspects of cancer, the Cancer Center provides comprehensive information that parents need.

  • Chemotherapy Chemotherapy

    Chemotherapy medications are used to treat cancer throughout the body by killing actively dividing cells. Learn more about chemo.

  • Childhood Cancer Childhood Cancer

    Different kinds of childhood cancer have different signs, symptoms, treatments, and outcomes. But today, over 80% of all children with cancer live 5 years or more.

  • Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML)

    While this type of blood cancer is more common in adults, it affects children, too. Thanks to advances in therapy, most kids with CML can be cured.

  • Effects of Cancer Treatment on Fertility Effects of Cancer Treatment on Fertility

    While some cancer treatments have little to no effect on reproductive health, others are more likely cause temporary or permanent infertility.

  • Ewing Sarcoma Ewing Sarcoma

    This type of cancer mainly affects adolescents and usually develops in the arms, legs, ribs, spinal column, and pelvis. With early diagnosis and treatment, many kids with Ewing sarcoma have a good chance of recovery.

  • Germ Cell Tumors Germ Cell Tumors

    Germ cell tumors happen when reproductive cells in an unborn baby don't develop as they should.

  • Hodgkin Lymphoma Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Hodgkin lymphoma is a type of cancer that affects the lymphatic system.

  • Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia (JMML) Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia (JMML)

    Learn about this type of blood cancer that usually affects kids under 2 years old.

  • Leukemia Leukemia

    Leukemia refers to cancers of the white blood cells (also called leukocytes or WBCs). With the proper treatment, the outlook for kids who are diagnosed with leukemia is quite good.

  • Liver Tumors Liver Tumors

    Tumors happen when abnormal cells form a mass or growth. If a tumor develops in the liver, the liver can't work as it should. Treatment may involve surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation.

  • Lymphoma Lymphoma

    Lymphoma is cancer that begins in the body's lymphatic tissue. It's a common type of cancer in children, but most recover from it.

  • Medulloblastoma Medulloblastoma

    Medulloblastoma is a type of brain tumor. Most brain tumors in children are medulloblastoma.

  • Melanoma Melanoma

    Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer. Find out how to lower your family's risk of getting melanoma and how doctors treat it.

  • Neuroblastoma Neuroblastoma

    Learn about neuroblastoma, a rare type of childhood cancer that develops in infants and young children.

  • Neurocutaneous Syndromes Neurocutaneous Syndromes

    Neurocutaneous syndromes are genetic disorders that lead to tumor growth in various parts of the body. Learn how to maximize the quality of life for children with these diseases.

  • Neurofibromatosis Neurofibromatosis

    Neurofibromatosis (NF) can cause tumors to grow on nerve tissue, producing skin and bone abnormalities. Learn more about NF, including how it's diagnosed and treated.

  • Neutropenia Neutropenia

    Certain cancers, or cancer treatment, can weaken the immune system, requiring a child to stay home to avoid exposure to germs. Here are ways to help your child make the best of it.

  • Osteosarcoma Osteosarcoma

    Osteosarcoma is the most common type of bone cancer. Boys are more likely to have osteosarcoma than girls, and most cases of osteosarcoma involve the knee.

  • Proton Therapy for Cancer Proton Therapy for Cancer

    Proton therapy is an advanced type of radiation therapy. It's an effective treatment for many childhood cancers.

  • Radiation Therapy Radiation Therapy

    Radiation therapy, also called radiotherapy, irradiation, or X-ray therapy, is one of the most common forms of cancer treatment.

  • Retinoblastoma Retinoblastoma

    Retinoblastoma is a childhood cancer that affects the retina, the area of the eye responsible for sensing light and sending nerve signals to the brain.

  • Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS)

    Rhabdomyosarcoma is a cancerous tumor that shows up in the body's soft tissues. With early diagnosis and timely treatment, most kids make a full recovery.

  • Side Effects of Chemotherapy and Radiation Side Effects of Chemotherapy and Radiation

    Side effects of cancer treatment can include fatigue or flu-like symptoms, hair loss, and blood clotting problems. After treatment ends, most side effects gradually go away.

  • Skull Base Surgery Skull Base Surgery

    Skull base surgery is done to remove tumors and other growths that appear at the bottom of the skull.

  • Stem Cell Transplants Stem Cell Transplants

    Stem cells help rebuild a weakened immune system. Stem cell transplants are effective treatments for a wide range of diseases, including cancer.

  • Words to Know: Transplants Words to Know: Transplants

    Easy-to-understand definitions of some key transplant terms.

  • Celiac Disease Celiac Disease

    Kids who have celiac disease, a disorder that makes their bodies react to gluten, can't eat certain kinds of foods. Find out more - including what foods are safe and where to find them.

  • Constipation Constipation

    Constipation is a very common problem among kids, and it usually occurs because a child's diet doesn't include enough fluids and fiber. In most cases, simple changes can help kids go.

  • Crohn's Disease Crohn's Disease

    Crohn's disease is a chronic condition that causes parts of the bowel to get red and swollen. The goal of treatment is to relieve symptoms, prevent other problems, and avoid flare-ups.

  • Diarrhea Diarrhea

    Most kids battle diarrhea from time to time, so it's important to know what to do to relieve and even prevent it.

  • Gastroesophageal Reflux Gastroesophageal Reflux

    When symptoms of heartburn or acid indigestion happen a lot, it could be gastroesophageal reflux (GER). And it can be a problem for kids - even newborns.

  • Hirschsprung Disease Hirschsprung Disease

    Children with Hirschsprung disease aren't able to pass a bowel movement, or do so with difficulty. Treatment almost always requires surgery.

  • Immunizations and IBD Immunizations and IBD

    Vaccines are safe to give to kids and teens with IBD and won't make their symptoms worse. Here are the ones they need.

  • Inflammatory Bowel Disease Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) refers to two chronic diseases that cause intestinal inflammation: ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Although they have features in common, there are some important differences.

  • Intestinal Malrotation Intestinal Malrotation

    Malrotation is a type of obstruction caused by abnormal development of the intestines while a fetus is in the womb. Find out more about this condition and the complications it can cause.

  • Intussusception Intussusception

    This bowel problem is the most common cause of bowel blockages in very young children. With timely treatment, kids recover quickly.

  • Lactose Intolerance Lactose Intolerance

    Many kids have lactose intolerance - trouble digesting lactose, the main sugar in milk and milk products - which can cause cramps, diarrhea, and gas.

  • Necrotizing Enterocolitis Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    Necrotizing enterocolitis is an intestinal disease that usually affects preemies. Medicines and therapy can help babies with NEC.

  • Nutrition Therapy and Crohn's Disease Nutrition Therapy and Crohn's Disease

    Nutrition therapy is an alternative to medicines that doctors use to ease the symptoms of Crohn's disease. It can help improve nutrition and growth, ease inflammation, and heal the gastrointestinal tract.

  • Pancreatitis Pancreatitis

    Pancreatitis is sometimes mistaken for a stomach virus because symptoms can include fever, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Symptoms usually get better on their own, but sometimes treatment is needed.

  • Peptic Ulcers Peptic Ulcers

    Many people think that spicy foods cause ulcers, but the truth is that bacteria are the main culprit. Learn more about peptic ulcers.

  • Pyloric Stenosis Pyloric Stenosis

    Pyloric stenosis can make a baby vomit forcefully and often. It can lead to serious problems like dehydration, and needs medical treatment right away.

  • Soiling (Encopresis) Soiling (Encopresis)

    If your child has bowel movements in places other than the toilet, you know how frustrating it can be. Many kids who soil beyond the years of toilet teaching have a condition known as encopresis.

  • Tapeworm Tapeworm

    Tapeworms are usually more upsetting to think about than to deal with. Tapeworm infections are rare in the United States, and they're usually easy to treat.

  • Transition of Care: Crohn's Disease Transition of Care: Crohn's Disease

    Most teens with Crohn's disease should transition to an adult health care provider when they're between 18 and 21 years old. Here's how parents can help them do that.

  • Transition of Care: Inflammatory Bowel Disease Transition of Care: Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Most teens with IBD should transition to an adult health care provider when they're between 18 and 21 years old. Here's how parents can help them do that.

  • Transition of Care: Ulcerative Colitis Transition of Care: Ulcerative Colitis

    Most teens with ulcerative colitis should transition to an adult health care provider when they're between 18 and 21 years old. Here's how parents can help them do that.

  • Ulcerative Colitis Ulcerative Colitis

    Ulcerative colitis is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that happens only in the colon. It causes the inner lining of the colon to get red and swollen with sores called ulcers.

  • When Your Child Needs a Liver Transplant When Your Child Needs a Liver Transplant

    If your child needs a liver transplant, you're probably feeling lots of emotions. Fortunately, most kids who have liver transplants go on to live normal, healthy lives.

  • A to Z: Bullous Myringitis A to Z: Bullous Myringitis

    Learn about bullous myringitis, an infection of the tympanic membrane (eardrum).

  • Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) Test Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) Test

    An auditory brainstem response (ABR) test is a safe and painless test that gives health care providers information about possible hearing loss.

  • Auditory Processing Disorder Auditory Processing Disorder

    Kids with APD can't process what they hear as other kids do, because their ears and brain don't fully coordinate. But early diagnosis and therapy can improve their hearing skills.

  • Balance Disorders Balance Disorders

    Most kids stumble and fall from time to time, but a child who continually loses his or her balance might have a balance disorder.

  • Chronic Hoarseness Chronic Hoarseness

    Misuse of the vocal cords — caused by such things as repetitive screaming, yelling, or using the voice in an unnatural way — can lead to chronic hoarseness. Learn how to get the voice back into perfect pitch.

  • Cleft Lip and Palate Cleft Lip and Palate

    With this birth defect, tissues of the mouth or lip don't form properly when a baby is developing in the womb. The good news is that cleft lip and palate are treatable.

  • Cochlear Implants Cochlear Implants

    Sometimes called a "bionic ear," the cochlear implant can restore hearing for many kinds of hearing loss.

  • Ear Injuries Ear Injuries

    Ear injuries not only can affect a child's hearing, but sense of balance, too. That's because our ears also help keep us steady on our feet.

  • Eardrum Injuries Eardrum Injuries

    A "popped" eardrum is more than just painful - it can sometimes lead to hearing loss. Learn about eardrum injuries and how to prevent them.

  • Ears Ears

    Hearing may be the ears' main job, but it's not all they do. Learn all about the ears in this Body Basics article.

  • Enlarged Adenoids Enlarged Adenoids

    Often, tonsils and adenoids are surgically removed at the same time. Though some kids need surgery, enlarged adenoids are normal in others.

  • Helping Sam Hear: A Family's Journey Helping Sam Hear: A Family's Journey

    When 3-month-old Sam was diagnosed with profound hearing loss, his parents found comfort and hope when they learned that a cochlear implant could help Sam learn to hear. Follow the family's journey, from the diagnosis through surgery and beyond.

  • Helping Sam Hear: A Family's Journey (Video) Helping Sam Hear: A Family's Journey (Video)

    When 3-month-old Sam was diagnosed with profound hearing loss, his parents found hope when they learned that a cochlear implant might help Sam gain the ability to hear. Learn about their journey.

  • Helping Sam Hear: A Family's Journey - Chapter Four: Breaking the Silence Helping Sam Hear: A Family's Journey - Chapter Four: Breaking the Silence

    When 3-month-old Sam was diagnosed with profound hearing loss, his parents found hope when they learned that a cochlear implant might help Sam gain the ability to hear. Learn about their journey.

  • Helping Sam Hear: A Family's Journey - Chapter One: The Diagnosis Helping Sam Hear: A Family's Journey - Chapter One: The Diagnosis

    When 3-month-old Sam was diagnosed with profound hearing loss, his parents found hope when they learned that a cochlear implant might help Sam gain the ability to hear. Learn about their journey.

  • Helping Sam Hear: A Family's Journey - Chapter Three: Surgery Helping Sam Hear: A Family's Journey - Chapter Three: Surgery

    When 3-month-old Sam was diagnosed with profound hearing loss, his parents found hope when they learned that a cochlear implant might help Sam gain the ability to hear. Learn about their journey.

  • Helping Sam Hear: A Family's Journey - Chapter Two: Finding the Way Helping Sam Hear: A Family's Journey - Chapter Two: Finding the Way

    When 3-month-old Sam was diagnosed with profound hearing loss, his parents found hope when they learned that a cochlear implant could help Sam learn to hear. Follow their journey.

  • How Can I Teach My Daughter Tolerance? How Can I Teach My Daughter Tolerance?

    Find out what the experts have to say.

  • How Can Parents Help Kids Handle Teasing? How Can Parents Help Kids Handle Teasing?

    Find out what the experts have to say.

  • Middle Ear Infections and Ear Tube Surgery Middle Ear Infections and Ear Tube Surgery

    Many kids get middle ear infections (otitis media). Doctors may suggest ear tube surgery for those with multiple infections or a hearing loss or speech delay.

  • Ototoxicity (Ear Poisoning) Ototoxicity (Ear Poisoning)

    Learn about this side effect of taking certain medicines.

  • Peritonsillar Abscess Peritonsillar Abscess

    Older kids and teens with tonsilitis sometimes develop this painful abscess, a pus-filled tissue at the back of the mouth.

  • Speech-Language Therapy Speech-Language Therapy

    Working with a certified speech-language pathologist can help a child with speech or language difficulties.

  • Stuttering Stuttering

    Many young kids go through a stage when they stutter. Stuttering usually goes away on its own but in some cases lasts longer.

  • Tonsils and Tonsillectomies Tonsils and Tonsillectomies

    Not everyone knows what tonsils do or why they may need to be removed. Knowing the facts can help alleviate the fears of both parents and kids facing a tonsillectomy.

  • A to Z: Failure to Thrive A to Z: Failure to Thrive

    Failure to thrive refers to a child's inability to gain weight and grow as expected for kids of the same age and gender. Most diagnoses are made in the first few years of life.

  • Acanthosis Nigricans Acanthosis Nigricans

    Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is a condition that causes the skin to thicken and darken in places. AN is not harmful or contagious, but can be a sign of certain other medical conditions.

  • Can Diabetes Be Prevented? Can Diabetes Be Prevented?

    Parents want to protect their kids from everything, which is virtually impossible, of course. But can you prevent your child from getting diabetes?

  • Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) affects the adrenal glands, which make important hormones. Symptoms depend on a child's age, sex, and which hormones the adrenal glands make too little or too much of.

  • Congenital Hypothyroidism Congenital Hypothyroidism

    Some babies are born with a thyroid gland that didn't develop correctly or doesn't work as it should. This is called congenital hypothyroidism.

  • Diabetes Center Diabetes Center

    Does your child have type 1 or type 2 diabetes? Learn how to manage the disease and keep your child healthy.

  • Failure to Thrive Failure to Thrive

    Most kids follow growth patterns that are normal, but others have ”failure to thrive” – they fail to gain weight as expected and have poor height growth.

  • Goiters and Thyroid Nodules Goiters and Thyroid Nodules

    An enlarged thyroid gland is a lump that can be felt under the skin at the front of the neck. When it's big enough to see easily, it's called a goiter. A thyroid nodule is a lump or enlarged area in the thyroid gland.

  • Hyperthyroidism and Graves’ Disease Hyperthyroidism and Graves’ Disease

    Hyperthyroidism happens when the thyroid gland sends too much thyroid hormone into the blood. The most common cause of hyperthyroidism is Graves' disease.

  • Hypothyroidism and Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis Hypothyroidism and Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis

    An underactive thyroid makes too little thyroid hormone, causing hypothyroidism. Hashimoto's thyroiditis, which causes most cases of hypothyroidism in kids and teens, is a condition in which the immune system attacks the thyroid.

  • Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR)

    IUGR is when a baby in the womb doesn't grow at the expected rate during the pregnancy. Women with IUGR should eat a healthy diet; get enough sleep; and avoid alcohol, drugs, and tobacco.

  • Klinefelter Syndrome Klinefelter Syndrome

    Boys with this condition have an extra "X" chromosome that prevents them from developing normally during puberty. But hormone treatments, counseling, and other therapies can help.

  • Metabolic Syndrome Metabolic Syndrome

    Metabolic syndrome is a group of health problems that put kids at risk for heart disease and diabetes. With lifestyle changes, however, many kids are able to improve their health and reduce their risk of disease.

  • Pancreatitis Pancreatitis

    Pancreatitis is sometimes mistaken for a stomach virus because symptoms can include fever, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Symptoms usually get better on their own, but sometimes treatment is needed.

  • Thyroid Disease Thyroid Disease

    The thyroid gland manufactures the hormones that help control metabolism and growth. So if the thyroid isn't operating properly, there can be problems in other parts of the body.

  • Thyroid Tests Thyroid Tests

    Thyroid blood tests check thyroid function and can help doctors diagnose thyroid disorders such as hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism.

  • Transition of Care: Diabetes Transition of Care: Diabetes

    Most teens with diabetes should transition to an adult health care provider when they're between 18 and 21 years old. Here's how parents can help them do that.

  • Treating Type 1 Diabetes Treating Type 1 Diabetes

    For kids diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, it's important to create a diabetes management plan to help them manage the condition and stay healthy and active.

  • Treating Type 2 Diabetes Treating Type 2 Diabetes

    Kids who are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes will need a diabetes management plan to help them manage the condition and stay healthy and active.

  • Type 1 Diabetes: What Is It? Type 1 Diabetes: What Is It?

    Every year in the United States, 13,000 children are diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. With some practical knowledge, you can become your child's most important ally in learning to live with the disease.

  • Type 2 Diabetes: What Is It? Type 2 Diabetes: What Is It?

    Learning what you can about type 2 diabetes will let you help your child manage and live with the disease. Here are the basics.

  • What Is a Growth Disorder? What Is a Growth Disorder?

    The other kids in the class have been getting taller and developing into young adults, but your child's growth seems to be lagging behind. Could a growth disorder be the cause?

  • What Is Gestational Diabetes? What Is Gestational Diabetes?

    Find out what the experts have to say.

  • Birth Defects Birth Defects

    Some birth defects are minor and cause no problems; others cause major disabilities. Learn about the different types of birth defects, and how to help prevent them.

  • Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is a neurological disorder. It causes muscle weakness and numbness, most commonly in the arms and legs.

  • CLOVES Syndrome CLOVES Syndrome

    CLOVES syndrome is a very rare genetic disorder that causes vascular, skin, spinal, and bone or joint abnormalities.

  • Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) affects the adrenal glands, which make important hormones. Symptoms depend on a child's age, sex, and which hormones the adrenal glands make too little or too much of.

  • Congenital Hypothyroidism Congenital Hypothyroidism

    Some babies are born with a thyroid gland that didn't develop correctly or doesn't work as it should. This is called congenital hypothyroidism.

  • Down Syndrome Down Syndrome

    Down syndrome is a condition in which extra genetic material causes delays in the way a child develops, both physically and mentally.

  • Dwarfism Dwarfism

    Dwarfism is a condition that is characterized by short stature. Many of the possible complications of dwarfism are treatable, so that people of short stature can lead healthy, active lives.

  • G6PD Deficiency G6PD Deficiency

    G6PD deficiency an inherited condition in which someone doesn't have enough of the enzyme G6PD, which protects red blood cells.

  • Goiters and Thyroid Nodules Goiters and Thyroid Nodules

    An enlarged thyroid gland is a lump that can be felt under the skin at the front of the neck. When it's big enough to see easily, it's called a goiter. A thyroid nodule is a lump or enlarged area in the thyroid gland.

  • Hemophilia Hemophilia

    Hemophilia is a rare bleeding disorder that prevents the blood from clotting properly. With modern treatment, most kids who have it can lead full, healthy lives.

  • Hyperthyroidism and Graves’ Disease Hyperthyroidism and Graves’ Disease

    Hyperthyroidism happens when the thyroid gland sends too much thyroid hormone into the blood. The most common cause of hyperthyroidism is Graves' disease.

  • Hypothyroidism and Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis Hypothyroidism and Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis

    An underactive thyroid makes too little thyroid hormone, causing hypothyroidism. Hashimoto's thyroiditis, which causes most cases of hypothyroidism in kids and teens, is a condition in which the immune system attacks the thyroid.

  • Kids and Diabetes: Wendy's Story Kids and Diabetes: Wendy's Story

    Wendy's daughter Madison was diagnosed with diabetes at age 5. Wendy tells how her daughter learned to manage her diabetes and stay an active and happy kid.

  • Klinefelter Syndrome Klinefelter Syndrome

    Boys with this condition have an extra "X" chromosome that prevents them from developing normally during puberty. But hormone treatments, counseling, and other therapies can help.

  • Marfan Syndrome Marfan Syndrome

    Marfan syndrome affects the body's connective tissue and can cause problems in the eyes, joints, and heart. Even though the disease has no cure, doctors can successfully treat just about all of its symptoms.

  • Muscular Dystrophy Muscular Dystrophy

    Muscular dystrophy is a disorder that weakens a person's muscles over time. People who have the disease can gradually lose the ability to do everyday tasks.

  • Neurocutaneous Syndromes Neurocutaneous Syndromes

    Neurocutaneous syndromes are genetic disorders that lead to tumor growth in various parts of the body. Learn how to maximize the quality of life for children with these diseases.

  • Neurofibromatosis Neurofibromatosis

    Neurofibromatosis (NF) can cause tumors to grow on nerve tissue, producing skin and bone abnormalities. Learn more about NF, including how it's diagnosed and treated.

  • Newborn Screening Tests Newborn Screening Tests

    Newborn screening tests look for harmful or potentially fatal disorders that aren't apparent at birth. Find out which tests are done and which disorders they're designed to detect.

  • Noonan Syndrome Noonan Syndrome

    Noonan syndrome is a condition that some babies are born with. It causes changes in the face and chest, and usually includes heart problems.

  • Prenatal Genetic Counseling Prenatal Genetic Counseling

    Genetic counselors work with people who are either planning to have a baby or are pregnant to determine whether they carry the genes for certain inherited disorders. Find out more.

  • Tay-Sachs Disease Tay-Sachs Disease

    A baby with Tay-Sachs disease is born without an important enzyme, so fatty proteins build up in the brain, hurting the baby's sight, hearing, movement, and mental development.

  • Thyroid Disease Thyroid Disease

    The thyroid gland manufactures the hormones that help control metabolism and growth. So if the thyroid isn't operating properly, there can be problems in other parts of the body.

  • Thyroid Tests Thyroid Tests

    Thyroid blood tests check thyroid function and can help doctors diagnose thyroid disorders such as hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism.

  • Treacher Collins Syndrome Treacher Collins Syndrome

    Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) refers to a group of facial features that some babies are born with. TCS causes distinctive abnormalities of the head and face, but doesn't affect intelligence or lifespan.

  • Triple X Syndrome Triple X Syndrome

    Triple X syndrome (also known as XXX syndrome, 47,XXX, and trisomy X) is a genetic condition found in girls only. Girls who have it may be taller than average, but the symptoms can vary greatly.

  • Tuberous Sclerosis Tuberous Sclerosis

    Tuberous sclerosis is a condition that causes the growth of benign tumors. Symptoms can range from mild to severe.

  • Turner Syndrome Turner Syndrome

    Girls with Turner syndrome, a genetic condition, usually are shorter than average and infertile due to early loss of ovarian function. Early diagnosis and treatments can help most of them.

  • What Is Epigenetics? What Is Epigenetics?

    Epigenetics - the idea that environmental factors can change the health not only of the people who are exposed to them, but also the health of their descendants - is something we'll be hearing more about.

  • XYY Syndrome XYY Syndrome

    XYY syndrome is a rare genetic condition that affects only males. Boys who have it may be taller than average, but the symptoms can vary greatly.

  • A to Z: Beta Thalassemia A to Z: Beta Thalassemia

    Learn about genetic disorders and diseases and conditions that affect the blood.

  • Alpha Thalassemia Alpha Thalassemia

    Alpha thalassemia is a blood disorder in which the body has a problem producing alpha globin, a component of hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that transports oxygen throughout the body.

  • Anemia Anemia

    Anemia happens when there aren't enough healthy red blood cells in the body. It can be caused by many things, including dietary problems, medical treatments, and inherited conditions.

  • Aortic Stenosis Aortic Stenosis

    Aortic stenosis means the aortic valve is too small, narrow, or stiff. Many people have no symptoms, but kids with more severe cases will need surgery so that blood flows properly through the body.

  • Arrhythmias Arrhythmias

    Arrhythmias are abnormal heart rhythms usually caused by an electrical "short circuit" in the heart. Many are minor and not a health threat, but some can indicate a more serious problem.

  • Arteriovenous Malformations Arteriovenous Malformations

    An arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is an abnormal connection between an artery and a vein. Large AVMs or multiple AVMs usually needs medical treatment.

  • Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) Atrial Septal Defect (ASD)

    Atrial septal defect (ASD) — also known as a "hole in the heart" — is a type of congenital heart defect. Most ASDs are diagnosed and treated successfully.

  • Beta Thalassemia Beta Thalassemia

    Beta thalassemia is a blood disorder in which the body has a problem producing beta globin, a component of hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that transports oxygen throughout the body.

  • Blood Types Blood Types

    Categorizing blood according to type helps prevent reactions when someone gets a blood transfusion. Find out how blood types work.

  • Body Basics: The Heart (Slideshow)

    Learn how this amazing muscle pumps blood throughout the body.

  • Cardiac Catheterization Cardiac Catheterization

    This minimally invasive procedure helps doctors perform diagnostic tests on the heart and even treat some heart conditions.

  • Cardiac Stents Cardiac Stents

    Cardiac stents are very small mesh wire tubes that hold blood vessels open so that blood can flow through the vessels normally. Find out about the procedure to place a stent.

  • Cardiomyopathy Cardiomyopathy

    Cardiomyopathy is when the heart muscle becomes weak and enlarged, which makes it difficult to pump blood through the body. There’s usually no cure for the condition in children, but it can be treated.

  • Cholesterol Cholesterol

    Most parents probably don't think about what cholesterol means for their kids. But high cholesterol is a risk factor for heart disease, which has its roots in childhood.

  • Coarctation of the Aorta Coarctation of the Aorta

    Coarctation of the aorta (COA) is a narrowing of the aorta, the major blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart to the body.

  • Congenital Heart Defects Congenital Heart Defects

    Congenital heart defects involve abnormal or incomplete development of the heart. Many treatments are available for the defects and their related health problems.

  • Congenital Heart Defects Congenital Heart Defects

    Heart defects happen when there's a problem with a baby's heart development during pregnancy. Most heart defects can be treated during infancy.

  • Congenital Hemangiomas Congenital Hemangiomas

    A hemangioma is a growth of tangled blood vessels. A congenital hemangioma is one that a baby is born with. They're usually a bluish or purple circle or oval.

  • Dictionary: Aorta Dictionary: Aorta

    The aorta is the major blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart to the rest of the body.

  • Dictionary: Blalock-Taussig (BT) shunt Dictionary: Blalock-Taussig (BT) shunt

    A Blalock-Taussig (BT) shunt is a small, soft tube that lets blood in the body be redirected.

  • Dictionary: Blood Pressure Dictionary: Blood Pressure

    Blood pressure is a measurement that tells how hard the heart is pumping to move blood through the blood vessels.

  • Dictionary: Heart Transplant Dictionary: Heart Transplant

    A heart transplant is a surgery where doctors remove a person's sick heart and replace it with a healthy donor heart.

  • Dictionary: Inferior Vena Cava Dictionary: Inferior Vena Cava

    The inferior vena cava is the large vein that returns blood from the legs and abdomen to the heart.

  • Dictionary: Interstage Period Dictionary: Interstage Period

    Babies with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) need three surgeries. The time between the first and second surgeries is called the interstage period.

  • Dictionary: Left Atrium Dictionary: Left Atrium

    The left atrium receives blood full of oxygen from the lungs and then empties the blood into the left ventricle.

  • Dictionary: Left Ventricle Dictionary: Left Ventricle

    The left ventricle pumps blood full of oxygen out to the body.

  • Dictionary: Open-Heart Surgery Dictionary: Open-Heart Surgery

    Open-heart surgery is surgery that involves opening the chest and heart. A heart-lung machine does the work for the heart and lungs during the procedure.

  • Dictionary: Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) Dictionary: Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)

    A patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) can cause too much blood to flow to a baby’s lungs.

  • Dictionary: Right Atrium Dictionary: Right Atrium

    The right atrium receives blood low in oxygen from the body and then empties the blood into the right ventricle.

  • Dictionary: Sano shunt Dictionary: Sano shunt

    A Sano shunt is a small, soft tube that lets blood in the body be redirected.

  • Dictionary: Single Ventricle Defect Dictionary: Single Ventricle Defect

    Having a single ventricle means that only one of the heart's two ventricles (pumping chambers) works well enough to pump blood.

  • Dictionary: Superior Vena Cava Dictionary: Superior Vena Cava

    The superior vena cava is the large vein that returns blood from the head and arms to the heart.

  • Double Outlet Right Ventricle (DORV) Double Outlet Right Ventricle (DORV)

    Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a heart defect where the aorta connects to the heart in the wrong place.

  • Ebstein Anomaly Ebstein Anomaly

    Ebstein anomaly is a rare heart defect that affects the tricuspid valve. It can cause problems that range from very mild to very serious.

  • Echocardiogram Echocardiogram

    An echocardiogram (also called an echo or cardiac ultrasound) uses sound waves to create pictures of the heart. It shows the structure of the heart and its parts and how well they’re working.

  • Fetal Echocardiogram Fetal Echocardiogram

    A fetal echocardiogram (also called a fetal echo) uses sound waves to create pictures of an unborn baby's heart.

  • Fontan Procedure Fontan Procedure

    The Fontan procedure is open-heart surgery done as the third of three surgeries to treat hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS).

  • G6PD Deficiency G6PD Deficiency

    G6PD deficiency an inherited condition in which someone doesn't have enough of the enzyme G6PD, which protects red blood cells.

  • Glenn Procedure Glenn Procedure

    The Glenn procedure is open-heart surgery done as the second of three surgeries to treat hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS).

  • Heart Health Heart Health

    Are you heart smart? Learn about this amazing muscle, including how to care for kids with heart conditions.

  • Heart Murmurs Heart Murmurs

    Heart murmurs are very common, and most are no cause for concern and won't affect a child's health.

  • Hemangiomas Hemangiomas

    A hemangioma is a growth of tangled blood vessels. Most hemangiomas grow larger for several months, then shrink slowly. Some will require treatment.

  • Hemophilia Hemophilia

    Hemophilia is a rare bleeding disorder that prevents the blood from clotting properly. With modern treatment, most kids who have it can lead full, healthy lives.

  • Henoch-Schönlein Purpura (HSP) Henoch-Schönlein Purpura (HSP)

    Most kids who develop this inflammation of the blood vessels (marked by a raised red and purple rash) make a full recovery and have no long-term problems.

  • Hereditary Hemochromatosis Hereditary Hemochromatosis

    This genetic disease causes the body to store too much iron. Over time, an iron build-up can be dangerous. Learn more about hemochromatosis.

  • Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    When someone has hypertension (high blood pressure), the heart has to pump harder and the arteries are under greater strain as they carry blood.

  • Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS) Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS)

    Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a birth defect of a baby’s heart. The left side of the heart doesn’t grow as it should, making it smaller and weaker than normal.

  • Infantile Hemangiomas Infantile Hemangiomas

    A hemangioma is a growth of tangled blood vessels. An infantile hemangioma becomes visible in the first few weeks after birth.

  • Interrupted Aortic Arch (IAA) Interrupted Aortic Arch (IAA)

    An interrupted aortic arch (IAA) is a rare heart condition in which the aorta doesn’t form completely. Surgery must be done within the first few days of a baby’s life to close the gap in the aorta.

  • Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Iron helps the body carry oxygen in the blood and plays a key role in brain and muscle function. Too little iron can lead to iron deficiency anemia. Read more here.

  • Kawasaki Disease Kawasaki Disease

    Kawasaki disease is most common among children of Japanese and Korean descent, but can affect all ethnic groups. The first symptom is a high fever that lasts for at least 5 days.

  • Long QT Syndrome Long QT Syndrome

    Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a condition that affects the electrical system of the heart. Some kids have no symptoms, while others may feel changes in their heartbeat or feel lightheaded.

  • Lymphatic Malformations Lymphatic Malformations

    A lymphatic malformation is a clump of lymph vessels that form a growing, jumbled, spongy cluster. They're unusual growths, but are not cancerous.

  • Marfan Syndrome Marfan Syndrome

    Marfan syndrome affects the body's connective tissue and can cause problems in the eyes, joints, and heart. Even though the disease has no cure, doctors can successfully treat just about all of its symptoms.

  • Metabolic Syndrome Metabolic Syndrome

    Metabolic syndrome is a group of health problems that put kids at risk for heart disease and diabetes. With lifestyle changes, however, many kids are able to improve their health and reduce their risk of disease.

  • Mitral Valve Prolapse Mitral Valve Prolapse

    Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a very common heart condition, but it isn't a critical heart problem or a sign of other serious medical conditions.

  • Noonan Syndrome Noonan Syndrome

    Noonan syndrome is a condition that some babies are born with. It causes changes in the face and chest, and usually includes heart problems.

  • Norwood Procedure Norwood Procedure

    The Norwood procedure is open-heart surgery done as the first of three surgeries to treat hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS).

  • Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)

    The ductus arteriosus is a blood vessel that connects two major arteries before birth and normally closes after a baby is born. If it stays open, the result is a condition called patent ductus arteriosus (PDA).

  • Patent Foramen Ovale (PFO) Patent Foramen Ovale (PFO)

    The foramen ovale is a normal opening between the upper two chambers of an unborn baby’s heart. It usually closes soon after the baby’s birth — when it doesn't, it's called a patent foramen ovale.

  • Port-Wine Stains Port-Wine Stains

    For most kids, these birthmarks are no big deal — they're just part of who they are. Read about port-wine stains, how to care for them, and, if necessary, what treatments are available.

  • Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS) Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS)

    Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) happens when the autonomic nervous system — which controls things like heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing — doesn't work as it should.

  • Pulmonary Stenosis Pulmonary Stenosis

    Pulmonary stenosis means the pulmonary valve is too small, narrow, or stiff. Many people have no symptoms, but kids with more severe cases will need surgery so that blood flows properly through the body.

  • Pulse Oximetry (Pulse Ox) Pulse Oximetry (Pulse Ox)

    Pulse oximetry, a simple test that measures the amount of oxygen in the bloodstream, may give the first clue that there is a heart or lung problem.

  • Sickle Cell Disease Sickle Cell Disease

    Sickle cell disease is a blood disorder that makes red blood cells change shape and cause health problems. Find out how to help your child.

  • Single Ventricle Defects Single Ventricle Defects

    Usually, a heart has two working ventricles (pumping chambers). Having a single ventricle means that only one of the two ventricles works well enough to pump blood.

  • Stem Cell Transplants Stem Cell Transplants

    Stem cells help rebuild a weakened immune system. Stem cell transplants are effective treatments for a wide range of diseases, including cancer.

  • Strokes Strokes

    This "brain attack" happens when blood flow to the brain stops, even for a brief second. Signs and symptoms of strokes in kids are similar to those in adults.

  • Supraventricular Tachycardia (SVT) Supraventricular Tachycardia (SVT)

    Supraventricular tachycardia is a type of abnormal heart rhythm in which the heart beats very quickly.

  • Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)

    Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is a combination of problems caused by a birth defect that changes the way blood flows through the heart.

  • Tricuspid Atresia Tricuspid Atresia

    Tricuspid atresia is a congenital heart defect. A baby born with tricuspid atresia often has serious symptoms soon after birth because blood flow to the lungs is much less than normal.

  • Truncus Arteriosus Truncus Arteriosus

    Truncus arteriosus is a heart defect that happens when a child is born with one large artery instead of two separate arteries.

  • Venous Malformations Venous Malformations

    A venous malformation (VM) is a place in the body where veins haven't grown the right way. VMs can be difficult to treat.

  • Ventricular Septal Defect Ventricular Septal Defect

    Ventricular septal defect (VSD) — also known as a "hole in the heart" — is a congenital heart defect. Most VSDs are diagnosed and treated successfully.

  • von Willebrand Disease von Willebrand Disease

    Excessive or prolonged bleeding could be a sign of von Willebrand disease. Learn more about this genetic disorder that affects the blood's ability to clot.

  • When Your Child Needs a Heart Transplant When Your Child Needs a Heart Transplant

    If your child needs a heart transplant, you're probably feeling lots of emotions. Fortunately, many kids who undergo heart transplants go on to live normal, healthy lives.

  • Words to Know (Heart Glossary) Words to Know (Heart Glossary)

    A guide to medical terms about the heart and circulatory system. In an easy A-Z format, find definitions on heart defects, heart conditions, treatments, and more.

  • Blood in the Urine (Hematuria) Blood in the Urine (Hematuria)

    If your child has blood in the urine, don't panic. Most of the time it's not serious. Find out what causes it and what to do about it.

  • Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) affects the adrenal glands, which make important hormones. Symptoms depend on a child's age, sex, and which hormones the adrenal glands make too little or too much of.

  • Glomerulonephritis Glomerulonephritis

    Glomerulonephritis happens when tiny filtering units in the kidneys stop working properly. Most cases get better on their own or with treatment.

  • Henoch-Schönlein Purpura (HSP) Henoch-Schönlein Purpura (HSP)

    Most kids who develop this inflammation of the blood vessels (marked by a raised red and purple rash) make a full recovery and have no long-term problems.

  • Kidney Diseases in Childhood Kidney Diseases in Childhood

    The kidneys play a critical role in health. When something goes wrong, it could indicate a kidney disease. What are kidney diseases, and how can they be treated?

  • Kidney Stones Kidney Stones

    Kidney stones mostly happen to adults, but sometimes kids and teens can get them. Find out what kidney stones are, how to treat them, and ways to help prevent them.

  • Nephrotic Syndrome Nephrotic Syndrome

    Nephrotic syndrome happens when tiny filtering units in the kidneys stop working properly. This can cause weight gain and other symptoms. Most kids eventually outgrow it.

  • Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections and Related Conditions Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections and Related Conditions

    Recurrent urinary tract infections can cause kidney damage if left untreated, especially in kids under age 6. Here's how to recognize the symptom of UTIs and get help for your child.

  • Renal Tubular Acidosis Renal Tubular Acidosis

    This kidney problem causes acid levels in the blood to become too high, causing fatigue, muscle weakness, and other kidney problems. The condition is usually treatable.

  • Testicular Torsion Testicular Torsion

    This emergency condition causes extreme genital pain and usually requires surgery to save a boy's testicle. If your son has groin pain, get him to a doctor right away.

  • Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR) Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR)

    This problem with the urinary tract causes urine to flow backward from the bladder to the kidneys. Most cases can be treated effectively, and many kids outgrow the condition.

  • When Your Child Has a Chronic Kidney Disease When Your Child Has a Chronic Kidney Disease

    Parents of kids who have a chronic kidney disease often worry about what might happen next, how their child feels, and what treatments are likely to be involved. Find answers here.

  • When Your Child Needs a Kidney Transplant When Your Child Needs a Kidney Transplant

    If your child needs a kidney transplant, you're probably feeling lots of emotions. Fortunately, many kids who undergo kidney transplants go on to live normal, healthy lives.

  • Wilms Tumor Wilms Tumor

    Wilms tumor is a cancer of the kidneys that usually affects newborns and the very young. Fortunately, most kids with Wilms tumor survive and go on to live normal, healthy lives.

  • ADHD ADHD

    ADHD is a common medical condition that can affect kids at school, at home, and in friendships. This article is for parents who want to learn more about ADHD and how to help kids get the best diagnosis and care.

  • ADHD Medicines ADHD Medicines

    Medicine doesn’t cure ADHD. But it does help boost a child's ability to pay attention, slow down, and have more self-control. This article for parents has details on how ADHD medicines help.

  • Autism Spectrum Disorder Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Autism spectrum disorder affects a child's ability to communicate and learn. Early intervention and treatment can help kids improve skills and do their best.

  • Neurocutaneous Syndromes Neurocutaneous Syndromes

    Neurocutaneous syndromes are genetic disorders that lead to tumor growth in various parts of the body. Learn how to maximize the quality of life for children with these diseases.

  • Therapy for ADHD Therapy for ADHD

    Therapy is part of the treatment for most kids and teens diagnosed with ADHD. This article helps parents learn what to expect and how therapy works.

  • Understanding Dyslexia Understanding Dyslexia

    Dyslexia is a learning disability that makes it hard to learn to read and understand written language. Even kids with average or above-average intelligence can have dyslexia.

  • Apnea of Prematurity Apnea of Prematurity

    Apnea of prematurity (AOP) is a condition in which premature infants stop breathing for 15 to 20 seconds during sleep. AOP usually goes away on its own as a baby matures.

  • Asthma Asthma

    Asthma makes it hard to breathe. But with treatment, the condition can be managed so that kids can still do the things they love. Learn all about asthma.

  • Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD) Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD)

    Babies who are born prematurely or who experience respiratory problems shortly after birth are at risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), sometimes called chronic lung disease.

  • Cystic Fibrosis Cystic Fibrosis

    Cystic fibrosis (CF), a genetic disorder that particularly affects the lungs and digestive system, makes kids who have it more vulnerable to repeated lung infections.

  • Cystic Fibrosis and Nutrition Cystic Fibrosis and Nutrition

    In addition to extra calories, kids with cystic fibrosis have some specific nutritional needs. Find out ways to help your child with CF grow healthy and strong.

  • Incentive Spirometer Incentive Spirometer

    An incentive spirometer trains people to take slow, deep breaths. It's used during recovery from some types of surgery or as a way to manage illness. Find out how it works.

  • Managing Asthma Managing Asthma

    Asthma control can take a little time and energy to master, but it's worth the effort. Learn more about ways to manage your child's asthma.

  • Meconium Aspiration Meconium Aspiration

    Meconium aspiration can happen before, during, or after labor and delivery when a newborn inhales a mixture of meconium and amniotic fluid. Although it can be serious, most cases are not.

  • Pulse Oximetry (Pulse Ox) Pulse Oximetry (Pulse Ox)

    Pulse oximetry, a simple test that measures the amount of oxygen in the bloodstream, may give the first clue that there is a heart or lung problem.

  • Transient Tachypnea of the Newborn (TTN) Transient Tachypnea of the Newborn (TTN)

    For some newborns, the first few breaths of life may be faster and more labored than normal because of a lung condition called transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN).

  • A to Z: Yeast Infection A to Z: Yeast Infection

    See: Candidiasis.

  • Klinefelter Syndrome Klinefelter Syndrome

    Boys with this condition have an extra "X" chromosome that prevents them from developing normally during puberty. But hormone treatments, counseling, and other therapies can help.

  • Miscarriages Miscarriages

    Miscarriages are common, and in most cases aren't preventable. But you can take steps to increase your chances of having a healthy pregnancy.

  • PMS, Cramps, and Irregular Periods PMS, Cramps, and Irregular Periods

    Most period problems are common and normal. But some might be a sign that there's something else going on.

  • Precocious Puberty Precocious Puberty

    Precocious puberty - the onset of signs of puberty before age 7 or 8 in girls and age 9 for boys - can be physically and emotionally difficult for children and can sometimes be the sign of an underlying health problem.

  • Talking to Your Kids About STDs Talking to Your Kids About STDs

    Your kids need to understand how STDs spread and how to protect themselves. Here's how to talk to them about sexually transmitted diseases.

  • Testicular Torsion Testicular Torsion

    This emergency condition causes extreme genital pain and usually requires surgery to save a boy's testicle. If your son has groin pain, get him to a doctor right away.

  • Turner Syndrome Turner Syndrome

    Girls with Turner syndrome, a genetic condition, usually are shorter than average and infertile due to early loss of ovarian function. Early diagnosis and treatments can help most of them.

  • Vaginal Yeast Infections Vaginal Yeast Infections

    Vaginal yeast infections are common among growing girls, and can cause some pain and discomfort. They usually clear up quickly with proper medical treatment.

  • Your Daughter's First Gynecology Visit Your Daughter's First Gynecology Visit

    The idea of going to the gynecologist may make your daughter feel nervous. Here's how to make her feel more comfortable about a well-woman visit.

  • Night Terrors Night Terrors

    A night terror seems similar to a nightmare, but it's far more dramatic. Night terrors can be alarming, but aren't usually cause for concern or a sign of a medical issue.

  • Obstructive Sleep Apnea Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Brief pauses in breathing during sleep can be normal. But when breathing stops often or for longer periods, it can be a cause for concern.

  • Sleep Problems in Teens Sleep Problems in Teens

    Does your teen have trouble falling asleep at night? Is he or she sleepy during the day? Find out if it's just a normal part of adolescence, or if something else is to blame.

  • Sleepwalking Sleepwalking

    Although it can be unnerving to see, sleepwalking is actually very common in kids. Here's how to keep your young sleepwalker safe.

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