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General Health

  • Broken Bones Broken Bones

    Many kids will have a broken bone at some point. Here's what to expect.

  • Buckle Fractures Buckle Fractures

    A buckle or torus fracture is a type of broken bone. One side of the bone bends, raising a little buckle, without breaking the other side of the bone.

  • Canker Sores Canker Sores

    Many people regularly get bothersome canker sores in their mouths. Here's how to help prevent them - and make a kid who has one more comfortable.

  • Comminuted Fractures Comminuted Fractures

    A comminuted fracture is a type of broken bone. The bone is broken into more than two pieces.

  • Concussions Concussions

    The term concussion conjures up the image of a child knocked unconscious while playing sports. But concussions can happen with any head injury, often without any loss of consciousness.

  • Concussions: What Parents and Coaches Say Concussions: What Parents and Coaches Say

    We asked coaches and parents if they're following the latest rules on kids and concussions. See what they said.

  • Fevers Fevers

    Fevers happen when the body's internal "thermostat" raises the body temperature above normal. This is often the body's way of fighting infections.

  • Frequently Asked Questions About Casts Frequently Asked Questions About Casts

    Getting a cast often comes with plenty of questions. Read on for answers to some frequent inquiries many parents - and kids - may have about casts.

  • Going to the Emergency Room Going to the Emergency Room

    Knowing what to expect when you need to take your child to the emergency room can help make it a little less stressful.

  • Greenstick Fractures Greenstick Fractures

    A greenstick fracture is a type of broken bone. The bone cracks on one side only, not all the way through the bone.

  • Growing Pains Growing Pains

    Does your child sometimes wake up crying in the middle of the night complaining of throbbing leg pain? It could be growing pains.

  • Headaches Headaches

    Headaches affect kids as well as adults. Learn about common causes and when to talk to a doctor.

  • How Broken Bones Heal How Broken Bones Heal

    Broken bones have an amazing ability to heal, especially in kids. Full healing can take time, but new bone usually forms a few weeks after an injury.

  • How to Take Your Child's Temperature How to Take Your Child's Temperature

    All kids get a fever from time to time. Here's how to take your child's temperature, safely and accurately.

  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common intestinal problem that can cause cramps, gas, bloating, diarrhea, and constipation. Certain foods can trigger these problems. So can anxiety, stress, and infections.

  • Neurofibromatosis Neurofibromatosis

    Neurofibromatosis (NF) can cause tumors to grow on nerve tissue, producing skin and bone abnormalities. Learn more about NF, including how it's diagnosed and treated.

  • Occupational Therapy Occupational Therapy

    Occupational therapy can help improve kids' cognitive, physical, and motor skills and enhance their self-esteem and sense of accomplishment.

  • Old Wives' Tales Old Wives' Tales

    Why do we cling to old wives' tales when we live in a world rich with medical expertise? While most are harmless, at least one is dangerous. Find out which are fact and which are fiction.

  • Osgood-Schlatter Disease Osgood-Schlatter Disease

    Osgood-Schlatter disease (OSD) is one of the most common causes of knee pain in adolescents. It's really not a disease, but an overuse injury.

  • Physical Therapy Physical Therapy

    Doctors often recommend physical therapy for kids who have been injured or have movement problems from an illness, disease, or disability. Learn more about PT.

  • Splints Splints

    A splint is a support device that keeps an injured area from moving. Doctors often use splints to hold bones and joints in place so they can heal after a fracture.

  • Stress Fractures Stress Fractures

    A stress fracture is a tiny crack in a bone. They usually happen from repeating the same movement over and over.

  • When and Where to Get Medical Care When and Where to Get Medical Care

    Should you head to the ER when your child is hurt or ill? What about an urgent care center? Different problems need different levels of care, and you have many options.

  • About Body Basics

    Remember the biology class you had in high school? Well, maybe you don't or maybe now that you have a child, your interest in how the body works has grown.

  • Blood Blood

    Blood is vital to bodily function. Read this article for the basics about blood, blood cells, blood diseases, and more.

  • Bones, Muscles, and Joints Bones, Muscles, and Joints

    Without bones, muscles, and joints, we couldn't stand, walk, run, or even sit. The musculoskeletal system supports our bodies, protects our organs from injury, and enables movement.

  • Brain and Nervous System Brain and Nervous System

    The brain controls everything we do, and is often likened to the central computer within a vast, complicated communication network, working at lightning speed.

  • Digestive System Digestive System

    The digestive process starts even before the first bite of food. Find out more about the digestive system and how our bodies break down and absorb the food we eat.

  • Ears Ears

    Hearing may be the ears' main job, but it's not all they do. Learn all about the ears in this Body Basics article.

  • Endocrine System Endocrine System

    Although we rarely think about them, the glands of the endocrine system and the hormones they release influence almost every cell, organ, and function of our bodies.

  • Eyes Eyes

    The eyes are small compared with most of the body's other organs, but their structure is incredibly complex. Learn more about eyes, vision, and common problems with both.

  • Female Reproductive System Female Reproductive System

    Learning about the female reproductive system, what it does, and the problems that can affect it can help you better understand your daughter's reproductive health.

  • Heart and Circulatory System Heart and Circulatory System

    The heart and circulatory system are our body's lifeline, delivering blood to the body's tissues. Brush up on your ticker with this body basics article.

  • Immune System Immune System

    The immune system, composed of special cells, proteins, tissues, and organs that protect against germs and microorganisms, is the body's defense against disease.

  • Kidneys and Urinary Tract Kidneys and Urinary Tract

    The bean-shaped kidneys, each about the size of a child's fist, perform several functions essential to health. Their most important role is to filter blood and produce urine.

  • Lungs and Respiratory System Lungs and Respiratory System

    By the time we're 70 years old, we will have taken at least 600 million breaths. All of this breathing couldn't happen without the respiratory system.

  • Male Reproductive System Male Reproductive System

    Understanding the male reproductive system, what it does, and problems that can affect it can help you better understand your son's reproductive health.

  • Metabolism Metabolism

    Brush up on metabolism basics - including common metabolic disorders - in this article.

  • Mouth and Teeth Mouth and Teeth

    Our mouth and teeth play an important role in our daily lives. Here's a course on the basics - including common problems of the mouth and teeth.

  • Skin, Hair, and Nails Skin, Hair, and Nails

    Our skin protects the network of tissues, muscles, bones, nerves, blood vessels, and everything else inside our bodies. Hair and nails are actually modified types of skin.

  • Spleen and Lymphatic System Spleen and Lymphatic System

    The lymphatic system is an extensive drainage network that helps keep bodily fluid levels in balance and defends the body against infections.

  • A Directory of Medical Tests A Directory of Medical Tests

    Sometimes, doctors need to order tests to evaluate a child's health or to understand what's causing an illness. Here are some common ones.

  • Basic Blood Chemistry Tests Basic Blood Chemistry Tests

    Doctors order basic blood chemistry tests to assess a wide range of conditions and the function of organs.

  • Blood Culture Blood Culture

    A blood culture is a test that looks for germs (such as bacteria or fungi) in the blood.

  • Blood Test: Complete Blood Count Blood Test: Complete Blood Count

    The complete blood count (CBC) is the most common blood test. It analyzes red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.

  • Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel

    Liver function tests can help doctors see if the liver has been damaged. They also can help diagnose infections and monitor medications that can cause liver-related side effects.

  • Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a complicated disease. It's a physical condition, but it can also affect a person psychologically.

  • Complementary and Alternative Medicine Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Alternative medicine includes herbal remedies, teas, supplements, and acupuncture. Learn what the risks are and whether alternative therapies can help your child.

  • Constipation Constipation

    Constipation is a very common problem among kids, and it usually occurs because a child's diet doesn't include enough fluids and fiber. In most cases, simple changes can help kids go.

  • Coughing Coughing

    Coughs are a common symptom, but most aren't a sign of a serious condition. Learn about different coughs, how to help your child feel better, and when to call your doctor.

  • Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Chloride Sweat Test Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Chloride Sweat Test

    Is your child scheduled to have a sweat test? Find out how this test is performed and how it's used to diagnose cystic fibrosis.

  • ECG (Electrocardiogram) ECG (Electrocardiogram)

    Is your child scheduled to have an ECG? Find out how this test is performed and when you can expect the results.

  • EEG (Electroencephalogram) EEG (Electroencephalogram)

    Is your child scheduled to have an EEG? Find out how this test is done and when you can expect the results.

  • EMG (Electromyogram) EMG (Electromyogram)

    Is your child scheduled to have an EMG? Find out how this test is performed and when you can expect the results.

  • Febrile Seizures Febrile Seizures

    Febrile seizures are full-body convulsions caused by high fevers that affect young kids. Although they can be frightening, they usually stop on their own and don't cause any other health problems.

  • Giving Opioid Prescription Pain Medicine: What Parents Need to Know Giving Opioid Prescription Pain Medicine: What Parents Need to Know

    If your child’s health care provider prescribed a prescription pain medicine that contains an opioid, you probably have many questions about how to use it safely. Get answers here.

  • How to Take Your Child's Pulse How to Take Your Child's Pulse

    Need to check your child's heart rate? Follow our guide and check with your doctor if you have questions.

  • Is It a Cold or the Flu? Is It a Cold or the Flu?

    Your child is sent home from school with a sore throat, cough, and high fever - could it be the flu that's been going around? Or is it just a common cold? Find out here!

  • Is My Child Too Sick to Go to School? Is My Child Too Sick to Go to School?

    It can be hard to know if kids are well enough to go to school or childcare. Here are some guidelines.

  • Lumbar Puncture (Spinal Tap) Lumbar Puncture (Spinal Tap)

    If your child is scheduled to have a lumbar puncture, also called a spinal tap, read about how this test is performed and when you can expect the results.

  • Mumps Mumps

    Mumps is a viral infection that causes telltale swelling and pain in the salivary glands. With the help of the mumps vaccine, it's preventable.

  • Munchausen by Proxy Syndrome Munchausen by Proxy Syndrome

    Munchausen by proxy syndrome (MBPS) involves a parent or caregiver misleading others into thinking that a child has medical problems by exaggerating, fabricating, or inducing symptoms.

  • Soiling (Encopresis) Soiling (Encopresis)

    If your child has bowel movements in places other than the toilet, you know how frustrating it can be. Many kids who soil beyond the years of toilet teaching have a condition known as encopresis.

  • Stool Tests Stool Tests

    Your child's doctor may order a stool collection test to check for blood, bacteria, ova, or parasites. Find out how this test is performed and when you can expect the results.

  • Strep Test: Throat Culture Strep Test: Throat Culture

    Is your child having a strep test or a throat culture? Find out how these swab tests are performed.

  • Surgeries and Procedures: Lumbar Puncture (Spinal Tap) Surgeries and Procedures: Lumbar Puncture (Spinal Tap)

    Find out how and why doctors perform lumbar punctures (spinal taps).

  • Talking to the Pharmacist Talking to the Pharmacist

    If your child is sick, you'll probably have many questions to ask your doctor. But have you made a list of questions and concerns to share with your pharmacist?

  • Talking to Your Child's Doctor Talking to Your Child's Doctor

    Building a relationship with your child's doctor requires communication and reasonable expectations.

  • Too Late for the Flu Vaccine? Too Late for the Flu Vaccine?

    The flu vaccine is usually offered between September and mid-November. Even though it's best to get it then, being vaccinated later can still help protect against the flu.

  • Urine Tests Urine Tests

    Is your child having a urine culture or urinalysis performed? Find out why urine tests are performed, and what to expect when the doctor orders them.

  • What Are Germs? What Are Germs?

    Germs are the microscopic bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa that can cause disease. With a little prevention, you can keep harmful germs out of your family's way.

  • Why Is Hand Washing So Important? Why Is Hand Washing So Important?

    Washing your hands well and often is the best way to keep from getting sick. Here's how to teach this all-important habit to your kids.

  • Amblyopia Amblyopia

    Amblyopia interferes with the way the eye and the brain work together. The result is poor vision. Treatment may involve glasses, patches, eye drops, or surgery.

  • Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder (ANSD) Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder (ANSD)

    Some kids have hearing loss due to auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD), a problem in the transmission of sound from the inner ear to the brain.

  • Cochlear Implants Cochlear Implants

    Sometimes called a "bionic ear," the cochlear implant can restore hearing for many kinds of hearing loss.

  • Corneal Abrasions Corneal Abrasions

    Corneal abrasions, which are common among kids, happen when something gets into the eye. Though sometimes painful, they're rarely serious and usually heal within a few days.

  • Coughing Coughing

    Coughs are a common symptom, but most aren't a sign of a serious condition. Learn about different coughs, how to help your child feel better, and when to call your doctor.

  • Dealing With Earwax Dealing With Earwax

    Earwax helps protect the eardrum and fight infection. Parents shouldn't attempt to remove earwax at home, as doing so risks damage to the ear canal and, possibly, a child's hearing.

  • Ears Ears

    Hearing may be the ears' main job, but it's not all they do. Learn all about the ears in this Body Basics article.

  • Flying and Your Child's Ears Flying and Your Child's Ears

    That weird ear-popping sensation is a normal part of air travel. Here's how to help equalize the air pressure in your child's ears and eliminate, or at least decrease, ear pain.

  • Hearing Evaluation in Children Hearing Evaluation in Children

    Hearing problems can be overcome if they're caught early, so it's important to get your child's hearing screened early and checked regularly.

  • Helping Sam Hear: A Family's Journey Helping Sam Hear: A Family's Journey

    When 3-month-old Sam was diagnosed with profound hearing loss, his parents found comfort and hope when they learned that a cochlear implant could help Sam learn to hear. Follow the family's journey, from the diagnosis through surgery and beyond.

  • Helping Sam Hear: A Family's Journey - Chapter Five: New Beginnings Helping Sam Hear: A Family's Journey - Chapter Five: New Beginnings

    When 3-month-old Sam was diagnosed with profound hearing loss, his parents found hope when they learned that a cochlear implant might help Sam gain the ability to hear. Learn about their journey.

  • Marfan Syndrome Marfan Syndrome

    Marfan syndrome affects the body's connective tissue and can cause problems in the eyes, joints, and heart. Even though the disease has no cure, doctors can successfully treat just about all of its symptoms.

  • Strabismus Strabismus

    Strabismus causes eyes to wander or cross. Treatment may include glasses, patches, eye drops, or surgery.

  • Tear-Duct Obstruction and Surgery Tear-Duct Obstruction and Surgery

    Blocked tear ducts are a fairly common problem in infants. The earlier they're discovered, the less likely it is that infection will result or surgery will be necessary.

  • TMJ Disorders TMJ Disorders

    Kids with these jaw disorders often have difficulty chewing or talking due to problems with the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Symptoms can resolve on their own, or with treatment.

  • Vision Facts and Myths Vision Facts and Myths

    Old wives' tales abound about the eyes. From watching TV to eating carrots, here's the lowdown on some vision facts and fiction.

  • Your Child's Vision Your Child's Vision

    It's important for kids to have their eyes examined regularly, as many vision problems and eye diseases can be detected and treated early.

  • All About Sleep All About Sleep

    Getting enough sleep can be a problem for children of any age. Read this article to learn tips on bedtime schedules and routines for your child.

  • Bed-Sharing Bed-Sharing

    Bed-sharing increases the risk of sleep-related deaths, including SIDS. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends room-sharing without bed-sharing for the safest sleep environment.

  • Bedwetting Bedwetting

    Bedwetting is an issue that millions of families face every night. Most of the time it's not a sign of any deeper medical or emotional issues and kids eventually grow out of it.

  • Bruxism (Teeth Grinding or Clenching) Bruxism (Teeth Grinding or Clenching)

    Gnashing and grinding teeth, called bruxism, is common in kids, and often happens during deep sleep or while a child is under stress.

  • Flat Head Syndrome (Positional Plagiocephaly) Flat Head Syndrome (Positional Plagiocephaly)

    Babies can develop a flat spot on the back of their heads, usually from sleeping in the same position too long. Alternating your baby's sleep position and providing lots of "tummy time" can help.

  • Night Terrors Night Terrors

    A night terror seems similar to a nightmare, but it's far more dramatic. Night terrors can be alarming, but aren't usually cause for concern or a sign of a medical issue.

  • Nightmares Nightmares

    Nightmares aren't totally preventable, but parents can help kids feel better when they have one and ease their transition back to sleep.

  • Obstructive Sleep Apnea Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Brief pauses in breathing during sleep can be normal. But when breathing stops often or for longer periods, it can be a cause for concern.

  • Sleep and Your Preschooler Sleep and Your Preschooler

    Preschoolers sleep about 11 to 12 hours during each 24-hour period, and it's important to help them develop good habits for getting to sleep.

  • Sleepwalking Sleepwalking

    Although it can be unnerving to see, sleepwalking is actually very common in kids. Here's how to keep your young sleepwalker safe.

  • Bruxism (Teeth Grinding or Clenching) Bruxism (Teeth Grinding or Clenching)

    Gnashing and grinding teeth, called bruxism, is common in kids, and often happens during deep sleep or while a child is under stress.

  • Fluoride and Water Fluoride and Water

    Keeping kids' teeth healthy requires more than just daily brushing. Learn about fluoride, a substance found naturally in water that plays an important role in healthy teeth.

  • Is My Son Old Enough to Brush His Teeth? Is My Son Old Enough to Brush His Teeth?

    Find out what the experts have to say.

  • Keeping Your Child's Teeth Healthy Keeping Your Child's Teeth Healthy

    Here are the basics about how to care for your child's teeth - and when.

  • Teething Tots Teething Tots

    Teething can be a tough time for babies and parents. Here are the facts on teething, including tips for baby teeth hygiene and relieving pain.

  • The Basics of Braces The Basics of Braces

    Does your child need braces? Find out when braces are necessary, what's involved in caring for them, and how to find low-cost orthodontic care in your area.

  • TMJ Disorders TMJ Disorders

    Kids with these jaw disorders often have difficulty chewing or talking due to problems with the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Symptoms can resolve on their own, or with treatment.

What next?