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Cerebral Palsy Center

  • Blood Blood

    Blood is vital to bodily function. Read this article for the basics about blood, blood cells, blood diseases, and more.

  • Bones, Muscles, and Joints Bones, Muscles, and Joints

    Without bones, muscles, and joints, we couldn't stand, walk, run, or even sit. The musculoskeletal system supports our bodies, protects our organs from injury, and enables movement.

  • Brain and Nervous System Brain and Nervous System

    The brain controls everything we do, and is often likened to the central computer within a vast, complicated communication network, working at lightning speed.

  • Digestive System Digestive System

    The digestive process starts even before the first bite of food. Find out more about the digestive system and how our bodies break down and absorb the food we eat.

  • Ears Ears

    Hearing may be the ears' main job, but it's not all they do. Learn all about the ears in this Body Basics article.

  • Endocrine System Endocrine System

    Although we rarely think about them, the glands of the endocrine system and the hormones they release influence almost every cell, organ, and function of our bodies.

  • Eyes Eyes

    The eyes are small compared with most of the body's other organs, but their structure is incredibly complex. Learn more about eyes, vision, and common problems with both.

  • Female Reproductive System Female Reproductive System

    Learning about the female reproductive system, what it does, and the problems that can affect it can help you better understand your daughter's reproductive health.

  • Heart and Circulatory System Heart and Circulatory System

    The heart and circulatory system are our body's lifeline, delivering blood to the body's tissues. Brush up on your ticker with this body basics article.

  • Immune System Immune System

    The immune system, composed of special cells, proteins, tissues, and organs that protect against germs and microorganisms, is the body's defense against disease.

  • Kidneys and Urinary Tract Kidneys and Urinary Tract

    The bean-shaped kidneys, each about the size of a child's fist, perform several functions essential to health. Their most important role is to filter blood and produce urine.

  • Lungs and Respiratory System Lungs and Respiratory System

    By the time we're 70 years old, we will have taken at least 600 million breaths. All of this breathing couldn't happen without the respiratory system.

  • Male Reproductive System Male Reproductive System

    Understanding the male reproductive system, what it does, and problems that can affect it can help you better understand your son's reproductive health.

  • Metabolism Metabolism

    Brush up on metabolism basics - including common metabolic disorders - in this article.

  • Mouth and Teeth Mouth and Teeth

    Our mouth and teeth play an important role in our daily lives. Here's a course on the basics - including common problems of the mouth and teeth.

  • Skin, Hair, and Nails Skin, Hair, and Nails

    Our skin protects the network of tissues, muscles, bones, nerves, blood vessels, and everything else inside our bodies. Hair and nails are actually modified types of skin.

  • Spleen and Lymphatic System Spleen and Lymphatic System

    The lymphatic system is an extensive drainage network that helps keep bodily fluid levels in balance and defends the body against infections.

  • A to Z: Abnormality of Gait (Gait Abnormality) A to Z: Abnormality of Gait (Gait Abnormality)

    Abnormality of gait (or gait abnormality) is an unusual walking pattern or style.

  • A to Z: Cerebral Palsy, Infantile A to Z: Cerebral Palsy, Infantile

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a brain disorder that affects muscle tone and motor skills (the ability to coordinate body movements).

  • A to Z: Failure to Thrive A to Z: Failure to Thrive

    Failure to thrive refers to a child's inability to gain weight and grow as expected for kids of the same age and gender. Most diagnoses are made in the first few years of life.

  • A to Z: Flat Foot A to Z: Flat Foot

    Flat foot is a condition in which the arches on the inside of a person's foot have less curve to them or are flat, so that the entire sole of the foot rests on the ground when the person is standing.

  • A to Z: Hemiplegia A to Z: Hemiplegia

    Learn about congenital disorders and conditions that affect the brain and central nervous system.

  • A to Z: Hyperopia A to Z: Hyperopia

    Hyperopia is farsightedness, a common condition in which someone can see things in the distance clearly, but things that are closer appear blurry.

  • A to Z: Hypoxemia A to Z: Hypoxemia

    Hypoxemia is a condition in which there is a lower than normal level of oxygen in the blood.

  • A to Z: Myopia A to Z: Myopia

    Myopia is nearsightedness, a common condition in which someone can see things that are close clearly, but things that are farther away appear blurry.

  • A to Z: Neurogenic Bladder A to Z: Neurogenic Bladder

    The term neurogenic bladder refers to a bladder that doesn't function properly because of nervous damage.

  • A to Z: Quadriplegia A to Z: Quadriplegia

    Learn about complications of spinal cord injuries and conditions that affect the central nervous system.

  • A to Z: Scoliosis A to Z: Scoliosis

    Learn about scoliosis, an abnormal curvature in the spine often detected just before puberty begins.

  • A to Z: Tetraplegia A to Z: Tetraplegia

    Learn about complications of spinal cord injuries and conditions that affect the central nervous system.

  • Apnea of Prematurity Apnea of Prematurity

    Apnea of prematurity (AOP) is a condition in which premature infants stop breathing for 15 to 20 seconds during sleep. AOP usually goes away on its own as a baby matures.

  • Birth Defects Birth Defects

    Some birth defects are minor and cause no problems; others cause major disabilities. Learn about the different types of birth defects, and how to help prevent them.

  • Cerebral Palsy Cerebral Palsy

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is one of the most common congenital disorders of childhood. This article explains causes, diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and more.

  • Failure to Thrive Failure to Thrive

    Most kids follow growth patterns that are normal, but others have ”failure to thrive” – they fail to gain weight as expected and have poor height growth.

  • Kyphosis Kyphosis

    Everyone's spine is slightly rounded forward at a gentle angle. If this angle is too pronounced, more than 50 degrees or so, it's called kyphosis, also known as roundback or hunchback.

  • Retinopathy of Prematurity Retinopathy of Prematurity

    Retinopathy of prematurity, which can happen in premature babies, causes abnormal blood vessel growth in the retina. Some children will need surgery to prevent vision loss or blindness.

  • Scoliosis Scoliosis

    Scoliosis makes a person’s spine curve from side to side. Large curves can cause health problems like pain or breathing trouble. Health care providers treat scoliosis with back braces or surgery when needed.

  • Spina Bifida Spina Bifida

    Spina bifida is a birth defect that involves the incomplete development of the spinal cord or its coverings. It's usually detected before a baby is born and treated right away.

  • When Your Baby Has a Birth Defect When Your Baby Has a Birth Defect

    If your child has a birth defect, you don't have to go it alone - many people and resources are available to help you.

  • Bancos de sangre de cordón umbilical Bancos de sangre de cordón umbilical

    Si ha oído hablar sobre la existencia de bancos de sangre de cordón umbilical, es posible que se pregunte en qué consiste conservar la sangre del cordón umbilical de un recién nacido en uno de estos bancos y si sería o no adecuado hacerlo en su caso y en el de su familia.

  • Cirugías y procedimientos: Retinopatía del prematuro Cirugías y procedimientos: Retinopatía del prematuro

    La retinopatía del prematuro, que se manifiesta principalmente en bebés prematuros, es una enfermedad que produce la proliferación de vasos sanguíneos anómalos en la retina, la capa del tejido nervioso del ojo que nos permite ver. Algunos casos de retinopatía del prematuro son leves y se corrigen so

  • Como cuidar los oídos de su hijo(a) cuando vuele en avión Como cuidar los oídos de su hijo(a) cuando vuele en avión

    Muchos de nosotros hemos sentido una sensación extraña en los oídos cuando volamos. Para los niños(as), especialmente los bebés y los niños(as) pequeños(as), esa sensación puede parecer aún más extraña ocasionándo incluso miedo.

  • Todo sobre la genética Todo sobre la genética

    Gracias a los avances en investigación médica, los médicos ahora cuentan con herramientas que les permiten entender más sobre cómo las enfermedades, o los riesgos de sufrir de ciertas enfermedades, pasan de una generación a otra.

  • Cerebral Palsy (CP) Cerebral Palsy (CP)

    Learn all about cerebral palsy (CP), one of the most common congenital disorders of childhood. Help your child or teen manage the condition, and find the help and services that kids with CP are entitled to.

  • Cerebral Palsy Checklist: Babies & Preschoolers Cerebral Palsy Checklist: Babies & Preschoolers

    If your child has cerebral palsy, there's a lot to know. This checklist makes it easy to determine what programs and services very young children with special needs might need.

  • Cerebral Palsy Checklist: Big Kids Cerebral Palsy Checklist: Big Kids

    If your child has cerebral palsy, there's a lot to know. This checklist makes it easy to determine what programs and services school-age kids with special needs might need.

  • A to Z: Vitamin D Deficiency A to Z: Vitamin D Deficiency

    Vitamin D deficiency is a condition that happens when a person isn't getting enough vitamin D, which is needed for strong bones and overall health.

  • All About Genetics All About Genetics

    Read the basics about genetics, including how certain illnesses, or increased risks for certain illnesses, pass from generation to generation.

  • Are Treatments From Other Countries Safe? Are Treatments From Other Countries Safe?

    Find out what the experts have to say.

  • Basic Blood Chemistry Tests Basic Blood Chemistry Tests

    Doctors order basic blood chemistry tests to assess a wide range of conditions and the function of organs.

  • Blood Test: Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT, or SGPT) Blood Test: Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT, or SGPT)

    An alanine aminotransferase (ALT) blood test is often part of an initial screening for liver disease.

  • Blood Test: Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST, or SGOT) Blood Test: Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST, or SGOT)

    An aspartate aminotransferase (AST) blood test is often part of an initial screening for liver problems.

  • Blood Test: Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP) Blood Test: Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP)

    A basic metabolic panel (BMP), commonly ordered as part of routine medical exam, is a set of blood tests that gives information about sugar (glucose) and calcium levels, kidney function, and electrolyte and fluid balance.

  • Blood Test: Bilirubin Blood Test: Bilirubin

    Doctors may order bilirubin blood tests for infants or older kids if they see signs of the skin taking on the yellow discoloration known as jaundice.

  • Blood Test: Complete Blood Count Blood Test: Complete Blood Count

    The complete blood count (CBC) is the most common blood test. It analyzes red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.

  • Blood Test: Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP) Blood Test: Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP)

    A comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) blood test helps evaluate kidney and liver function, sugar (glucose) and protein levels in the blood, and electrolyte and fluid balance.

  • Blood Test: Gamma-Glutamyl Transpeptidase (GGT) Blood Test: Gamma-Glutamyl Transpeptidase (GGT)

    Testing for GGT helps doctors look for problems with the liver or bile ducts.

  • Blood Test: Hemoglobin Blood Test: Hemoglobin

    Hemoglobin is a protein in red blood cells. A hemoglobin test can be done as part of a routine checkup to screen for problems and or because a child isn't feeling well.

  • Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel

    Liver function tests can help doctors see if the liver has been damaged. They also can help diagnose infections and monitor medications that can cause liver-related side effects.

  • Blood Test: Insulin Blood Test: Insulin

    This test is often used to evaluate the cause of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) or any other conditions related to abnormal insulin production.

  • Blood Test: Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) Blood Test: Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH)

    Lactate dehydrogenase (also called lactic acid dehydrogenase, or LDH) is an enzyme found in almost all body tissues. The LDH test is generally used to screen for tissue damage.

  • Blood Test: Lead Blood Test: Lead

    In babies and young kids whose brains are still developing, even a small amount of lead can cause learning disabilities and behavioral problems. A lead test can determine the amount of lead in the blood.

  • Blood Test: Lipase Blood Test: Lipase

    A lipase test may be done if a child has signs of a problem with the pancreas, such as belly pain, nausea, or vomiting.

  • Blood Test: Magnesium Blood Test: Magnesium

    Doctors do this test to assess blood levels of magnesium, which helps the muscles and nerves function, the heart maintain normal rhythm, the bones stay strong, and the body process energy and make proteins.

  • Blood Test: Phosphorus Blood Test: Phosphorus

    Doctors may order a phosphorus blood test to help diagnose or monitor kidney disorders, calcium and bone problems, or other conditions.

  • Blood Test: Valproic Acid Blood Test: Valproic Acid

    Doctors may order a blood test for valproic acid, an anticonvulsant drug prescribed mainly to prevent seizures, to monitor how well the liver is processing the medication.

  • Caring for a Seriously Ill Child Caring for a Seriously Ill Child

    Taking care of a chronically ill child is one of the most draining and difficult tasks a parent can face. But support groups, social workers, and family friends often can help.

  • CAT Scan: Abdomen CAT Scan: Abdomen

    An abdominal CAT scan can detect inflammation, infection, injury or disease in the liver, spleen, kidneys, bladder, stomach, bowel, pancreas, adrenal glands, blood vessels, and lymph nodes.

  • CAT Scan: Head CAT Scan: Head

    A head CAT scan is a painless test that uses a special X-ray machine to take pictures of a patient's brain, skull, and sinuses, as well as blood vessels in the head. It might be done to check for any number of conditions.

  • Cerebral Palsy: A Parent's Guide (Video) Cerebral Palsy: A Parent's Guide (Video)

    Are you raising a child with cerebral palsy? This guide offers advice, resources, and support so that you can help your child reach his or her full potential.

  • Dietary Needs for Kids With Cerebral Palsy Dietary Needs for Kids With Cerebral Palsy

    Kids with cerebral palsy often have trouble eating. But with the right diet and feeding techniques, they can get the nutrients needed to thrive.

  • ECG (Electrocardiogram) ECG (Electrocardiogram)

    Is your child scheduled to have an ECG? Find out how this test is performed and when you can expect the results.

  • EEG (Electroencephalogram) EEG (Electroencephalogram)

    Is your child scheduled to have an EEG? Find out how this test is done and when you can expect the results.

  • Finding Your Way in the Health Care System Finding Your Way in the Health Care System

    It can be stressful when your child needs medical attention, and more so when you're worried about where to get that care and how much it will cost. Here are some basics on managing the health care system.

  • Gastrostomy Tube (G-Tube) Gastrostomy Tube (G-Tube)

    Some kids have medical problems that prevent them from being able to take adequate nutrition by mouth. A gastrostomy tube (also called a G-tube) delivers nutrition directly to the stomach.

  • Genetic Testing Genetic Testing

    Advances in genetic testing have improved doctors' ability to diagnose and treat certain illnesses.

  • Giving Teens a Voice in Health Care Decisions Giving Teens a Voice in Health Care Decisions

    Involving teens in their health care can help prepare them for managing it on their own as adults.

  • Hearing Evaluation in Children Hearing Evaluation in Children

    Hearing problems can be overcome if they're caught early, so it's important to get your child's hearing screened early and checked regularly.

  • How to Find Affordable Health Care How to Find Affordable Health Care

    Finding coverage for your kids may be difficult, but it's not impossible. Many kids are eligible for government or community programs, even if their parents work. Learn what resources are available to your family.

  • Is a Clinical Trial Right for Your Child? Is a Clinical Trial Right for Your Child?

    Deciding to enroll your child in a clinical study will depend on its potential benefits and risks, as well as your child's particular illness. Learn more.

  • Lumbar Puncture (Spinal Tap) Lumbar Puncture (Spinal Tap)

    If your child is scheduled to have a lumbar puncture, also called a spinal tap, read about how this test is performed and when you can expect the results.

  • Managing Home Health Care Managing Home Health Care

    When kids need intensive health care after they're discharged from the hospital, it's important that family and caregivers learn about the devices, equipment, and support they'll need.

  • Occupational Therapy Occupational Therapy

    Occupational therapy can help improve kids' cognitive, physical, and motor skills and enhance their self-esteem and sense of accomplishment.

  • Physical Therapy Physical Therapy

    Doctors often recommend physical therapy for kids who have been injured or have movement problems from an illness, disease, or disability. Learn more about PT.

  • Prenatal Genetic Counseling Prenatal Genetic Counseling

    Genetic counselors work with people who are either planning to have a baby or are pregnant to determine whether they carry the genes for certain inherited disorders. Find out more.

  • Preparing Your Child for Anesthesia Preparing Your Child for Anesthesia

    If your child needs to have an operation, you probably have plenty of questions, many of them about anesthesia.

  • Preparing Your Child for Surgery Preparing Your Child for Surgery

    Good preparation can help your child feel less anxious about getting surgery. Kids of all ages cope much better if they have an idea of what's going to happen and why.

  • Preparing Your Child for Visits to the Doctor Preparing Your Child for Visits to the Doctor

    When kids know they're "going to the doctor," many become worried about the visit. Here's how to help them.

  • Spirometry Spirometry

    Spirometry measures how much and how quickly someone breathes in and out. It can help diagnose and monitor diseases that make it hard to breathe.

  • Surgeries and Procedures: Lumbar Puncture (Spinal Tap) Surgeries and Procedures: Lumbar Puncture (Spinal Tap)

    Find out how and why doctors perform lumbar punctures (spinal taps).

  • Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)

    Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is a combination of problems caused by a birth defect that changes the way blood flows through the heart.

  • The Medical Home The Medical Home

    A medical home is a new term in health care. But what does it mean? Find out what a medical home is and why your child needs one.

  • Ultrasound: Abdomen Ultrasound: Abdomen

    Doctors order abdominal ultrasounds when they're concerned about symptoms such as abdominal pain, repeated vomiting, abnormal liver or kidney function tests, or a swollen belly.

  • Ultrasound: Bladder Ultrasound: Bladder

    Doctors order bladder ultrasounds when there's a concern about bladder problems, such as difficulty urinating or daytime wetting.

  • Ultrasound: Head Ultrasound: Head

    Doctors order head ultrasounds when there's a concern about neurological problems in an infant.

  • Ultrasound: Renal (Kidneys, Ureters, Bladder) Ultrasound: Renal (Kidneys, Ureters, Bladder)

    A renal ultrasound makes images of your child's kidneys, ureters, and bladder. Doctors may order this test if they suspect kidney damage, cysts, tumors, kidney stones, or complications from urinary tract infections.

  • Urine Test: 24-Hour Analysis for Kidney Stones Urine Test: 24-Hour Analysis for Kidney Stones

    This test can show if certain substances are found at high concentrations in the urine, and might be causing kidney stones.

  • Urine Test: Automated Dipstick Urinalysis Urine Test: Automated Dipstick Urinalysis

    Automated dipstick urinalysis results may point to a urinary tract infection (UTI) or injury, kidney disease, or diabetes.

  • Urine Test: Calcium Urine Test: Calcium

    A urine calcium test can help monitor or determine the cause of kidney stones and other kidney diseases, or detect overactivity or underactivity in the parathyroid glands.

  • Urine Test: Dipstick Urine Test: Dipstick

    A urine dipstick test is often done as part of an overall urinalysis. The results of this test can help doctors diagnose a urinary tract infection (UTI), kidney disease, diabetes, or a urinary tract injury.

  • Urine Test: Microscopic Urinalysis Urine Test: Microscopic Urinalysis

    A microscopic urinalysis can help detect a urinary tract infection (UTI), kidney problems, diabetes, or a urinary tract injury.

  • Urine Tests Urine Tests

    Is your child having a urine culture or urinalysis performed? Find out why urine tests are performed, and what to expect when the doctor orders them.

  • Vitamin D Vitamin D

    Vitamin D is needed for strong bones, but is hard to come by because it's found in few foods. Here's how to make sure kids get enough vitamin D.

  • What Is Informed Consent? What Is Informed Consent?

    Find out what the experts have to say.

  • Words to Know (Special Needs Glossary)

    When your child has a disability and needs services, there's a lot you need to know. This glossary defines terms on health care, government benefits, learning, legal and financial matters, and more.

  • X-Ray Exam: Abdomen X-Ray Exam: Abdomen

    An abdominal X-ray can help find the cause of many abdominal problems, such as pain, kidney stones, intestinal blockage, a hole in the intestine, or an abdominal mass such as a tumor.

  • X-Ray Exam: Chest X-Ray Exam: Chest

    A chest X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses a small amount of radiation to take a picture of a person's chest, including the heart, lungs, diaphragm, lymph nodes, upper spine, ribs, collarbone, and breastbone.

  • X-Ray Exam: Hip X-Ray Exam: Hip

    A hip X-ray can help find the cause of symptoms such as limping, pain, tenderness, swelling, or deformity in the hip area. It can detect broken bones or a dislocated joint.

  • X-Ray Exam: Pelvis X-Ray Exam: Pelvis

    A pelvis X-ray can help find the cause pain, swelling, or deformity in the pelvic, hip, or upper leg regions, and can detect broken bones.

  • X-Ray Exam: Scoliosis X-Ray Exam: Scoliosis

    Kids with scoliosis have a spine that curves, like an S or a C. If scoliosis is suspected, a doctor may order X-rays to measure the curvature of the spine.

  • X-Ray Exam: Upper Gastrointestinal Tract (Upper GI) X-Ray Exam: Upper Gastrointestinal Tract (Upper GI)

    An upper GI X-ray can help find the cause of swallowing difficulties, unexplained vomiting, abdominal discomfort, severe indigestion, ulcers, reflux, hiatal hernia, or blockages.

  • X-Ray Exam: Voiding Cystourethrogram (VCUG) X-Ray Exam: Voiding Cystourethrogram (VCUG)

    A VCUG can help evaluate the bladder's size and shape, and look for abnormalities, such as a blockage. It can also show whether urine is moving in the right direction.

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