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Cancer Center Content List

  • Blood Blood

    Here are the basics about the life-sustaining fluid called blood.

  • Blood Types Blood Types

    Categorizing blood according to type helps prevent reactions when someone gets a blood transfusion. Find out how blood types work.

  • Bones, Muscles, and Joints Bones, Muscles, and Joints

    Without bones, muscles, and joints, we couldn't stand, walk, run, or even sit. The musculoskeletal system supports our bodies, protects our organs from injury, and enables movement.

  • Brain and Nervous System Brain and Nervous System

    The brain controls everything we do, and is often likened to the central computer within a vast, complicated communication network, working at lightning speed.

  • Digestive System Digestive System

    The digestive process starts even before the first bite of food. Find out more about the digestive system and how our bodies break down and absorb the food we eat.

  • Eyes Eyes

    The eyes are small compared with most of the body's other organs, but their structure is incredibly complex. Learn more about eyes, vision, and common problems with both.

  • Female Reproductive System Female Reproductive System

    Learning about the female reproductive system, what it does, and the problems that can affect it can help you better understand your daughter's reproductive health.

  • Heart and Circulatory System Heart and Circulatory System

    The heart and circulatory system are our body's lifeline, delivering blood to the body's tissues. Brush up on your ticker with this body basics article.

  • Immune System Immune System

    The immune system, composed of special cells, proteins, tissues, and organs that protect against germs and microorganisms, is the body's defense against disease.

  • Kidneys and Urinary Tract Kidneys and Urinary Tract

    The bean-shaped kidneys, each about the size of a child's fist, are essential to our health. Their most important role is to filter blood and produce urine.

  • Lungs and Respiratory System Lungs and Respiratory System

    By the time we're 70 years old, we will have taken at least 600 million breaths. All of this breathing couldn't happen without the respiratory system.

  • Male Reproductive System Male Reproductive System

    Understanding the male reproductive system and what it does can help you better understand your son's reproductive health.

  • Metabolism Metabolism

    Brush up on metabolism, the chemical reactions in the body's cells that change food into energy, in this article.

  • Mouth and Teeth Mouth and Teeth

    Our mouth and teeth play an important role in our daily lives. Here's a course on the basics - including common problems of the mouth and teeth.

  • Skin, Hair, and Nails Skin, Hair, and Nails

    Our skin protects the network of tissues, muscles, bones, nerves, blood vessels, and everything else inside our bodies. Hair and nails are actually modified types of skin.

  • The Lymphatic System The Lymphatic System

    The lymphatic system is an extensive drainage network that helps keep body fluid levels in balance and defends the body against infections.

  • A to Z: Beta Thalassemia A to Z: Beta Thalassemia

    Learn about genetic disorders and diseases and conditions that affect the blood.

  • Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common type of childhood cancer. Because it develops and gets worse quickly, prompt treatment is very important. With treatment, most kids are cured.

  • Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) happens when the body makes too many immature white blood cells. Among kids with leukemia, 20% have this type. With treatment, most recover.

  • Alpha Thalassemia Alpha Thalassemia

    Alpha thalassemia is a blood disorder in which the body has a problem producing alpha globin, a component of hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that transports oxygen throughout the body.

  • Anemia Anemia

    Anemia happens when there aren't enough healthy red blood cells in the body. It can be caused by many things, including dietary problems, medical treatments, and inherited conditions.

  • Beta Thalassemia Beta Thalassemia

    Beta thalassemia is a blood disorder in which the body has a problem producing beta globin, a component of hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that transports oxygen throughout the body.

  • Brain and Nervous System Cancers Brain and Nervous System Cancers

    These cancers are the most common type of cancer in children. When discovered early, they often can be cured.

  • Brain Tumors Brain Tumors

    Brain tumors are the second most common group of childhood cancers. Treatment requires a very specialized plan involving a team of medical specialists.

  • Chemotherapy Chemotherapy

    Chemotherapy (chemo) is treatment with medicines that stop the growth of cancer cells.

  • Childhood Cancer Childhood Cancer

    Different kinds of childhood cancer have different signs, symptoms, treatments, and outcomes. But today, most kids with cancer get better.

  • Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML)

    While this type of blood cancer is more common in adults, it affects children, too. Thanks to advances in therapy, most kids with CML can be cured.

  • Elective Surgery Elective Surgery

    Elective surgery means you and the doctor decide when the it will happen. Many elective surgeries are important, potentially life-changing operations. Here's how to plan for them.

  • Ewing Sarcoma Ewing Sarcoma

    This type of cancer mainly develops in the arms, legs, ribs, spinal column, and pelvis. Early diagnosis and treatment mean most kids have a good chance of recovery.

  • Germ Cell Tumors Germ Cell Tumors

    Germ cell tumors happen when reproductive cells in an unborn baby don't develop as they should.

  • Hepatoblastoma Hepatoblastoma

    Hepatoblastoma is a rare type of cancer that affects the liver but rarely spreads beyond it. Most cases are in children younger than 3.

  • Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a type of liver cancer. It's treated by a health care team of specialists in many areas.

  • Hodgkin Lymphoma Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Hodgkin lymphoma is a type of cancer that affects the lymphatic system. Most kids and teens who get Hodgkin lymphoma get better.

  • Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia (JMML) Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia (JMML)

    Learn about this rare type of cancer, which usually affects kids under 4 years old.

  • Late Effects of Cancer and Cancer Treatment Late Effects of Cancer and Cancer Treatment

    Long-term side effects, or late effects, happen to many cancer survivors. With early diagnosis and proper follow-up care, most late effects can be treated or cured.

  • Leukemia Leukemia

    Leukemia refers to cancers of the white blood cells. With the proper treatment, the outlook for kids with leukemia is quite good.

  • Liver Tumors Liver Tumors

    Tumors happen when cells form a mass or growth. Liver tumors can be benign (not cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

  • Lymphoma Lymphoma

    Lymphoma is cancer that begins in the body's lymphatic tissue. It's a common type of cancer in children, but most recover from it.

  • Medulloblastoma Medulloblastoma

    Medulloblastoma is a type of brain tumor. Most brain tumors in children are medulloblastoma.

  • Melanoma Melanoma

    Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer. Find out how to lower your family's risk of getting melanoma and how doctors treat it.

  • Neuroblastoma Neuroblastoma

    Learn about neuroblastoma, a rare type of childhood cancer that develops in infants and young children.

  • Neurofibromatosis Type 1 Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a genetic condition that causes benign tumors in and under the skin, often with bone, hormone, and other problems. Learn more about how it's diagnosed and treated.

  • Neutropenia Neutropenia

    Certain cancers, or cancer treatment, can weaken the immune system, requiring a child to stay home to avoid exposure to germs. Here are ways to help your child make the best of it.

  • Non-Hodgkin (Non-Hodgkin's) Lymphoma Non-Hodgkin (Non-Hodgkin's) Lymphoma

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (also called non-Hodgkin's lymphoma) is a is a cancer of the lymphatic system. The majority of kids with this type of cancer are cured.

  • Nutritional Needs for Kids With Cancer Nutritional Needs for Kids With Cancer

    Eating as well as possible and staying hydrated can help kids undergoing cancer treatment keep up their strength and deal with side effects. These tips can help.

  • Osteosarcoma Osteosarcoma

    Osteosarcoma is the most common type of bone cancer. Boys are more likely to have osteosarcoma than girls, and most cases of osteosarcoma involve the knee.

  • Radiation Therapy Radiation Therapy

    Radiation therapy, also called radiotherapy, irradiation, or X-ray therapy, is one of the most common forms of cancer treatment.

  • Retinoblastoma Retinoblastoma

    Retinoblastoma is a childhood cancer that affects the retina, the area of the eye responsible for sensing light and sending nerve signals to the brain.

  • Rhabdoid Tumor of the Liver Rhabdoid Tumor of the Liver

    A rhabdoid tumor of the liver is a cancer that often spreads quickly to other parts of the body. Most of these very rare tumors happen in babies and toddlers.

  • Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS)

    Rhabdomyosarcoma is a cancerous tumor that shows up in the body's soft tissues. With early diagnosis and timely treatment, most kids make a full recovery.

  • Testicular Cancer Testicular Cancer

    Testicular cancer is uncommon in boys. Most cases are in young and middle-aged men. It responds well to treatment, especially when it’s found early.

  • Thrombocytopenia Thrombocytopenia

    Thrombocytopenia is when someone has too few platelets in their bloodstream. Many things can cause it and most can be treated.

  • Tunneled Central Lines Tunneled Central Lines

    These surgically placed tubes let kids get blood drawn and receive intravenous (IV) medicines and fluids without repeated needle sticks.

  • Wilms Tumor Wilms Tumor

    Wilms tumor is a cancer of the kidneys that usually affects newborns and the very young. Fortunately, most kids with Wilms tumor survive and go on to live normal, healthy lives.

  • Biopsies Biopsies

    Doctors order biopsies to examine tissue or cells when they're concerned about a problem such as an infection, inflammation, or cancer.

  • Blood Test: Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST, or SGOT) Blood Test: Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST, or SGOT)

    An aspartate aminotransferase (AST) blood test is often part of an initial screening for liver problems.

  • Blood Test: Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP) Blood Test: Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP)

    A basic metabolic panel (BMP), commonly ordered as part of routine medical exam, is a set of blood tests that gives information about sugar (glucose) and calcium levels, kidney function, and electrolyte and fluid balance.

  • Blood Test: Complete Blood Count Blood Test: Complete Blood Count

    The complete blood count (CBC) is the most common blood test. It analyzes red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.

  • Blood Test: Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP) Blood Test: Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP)

    A comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) blood test helps evaluate kidney and liver function, sugar (glucose) and protein levels in the blood, and electrolyte and fluid balance.

  • Blood Test: Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) Blood Test: Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR)

    An erythrocyte sedimentation rate test (ESR) detects inflammation that may be caused by infection and some autoimmune diseases.

  • Blood Test: Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) Blood Test: Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH)

    Lactate dehydrogenase (also called lactic acid dehydrogenase, or LDH) is an enzyme found in almost all body tissues. The LDH test is generally used to screen for tissue damage.

  • Blood Test: Magnesium Blood Test: Magnesium

    Doctors do this test to assess blood levels of magnesium, which helps the muscles and nerves function, the heart maintain normal rhythm, the bones stay strong, and the body process energy and make proteins.

  • Blood Test: Partial Thromboplastin Time (PTT) Blood Test: Partial Thromboplastin Time (PTT)

    A partial thromboplastin time (PTT) test is used to evaluate blood's ability to clot. It may be done as part of an evaluation for a bleeding disorder or to monitor the effects of blood-thinning medicine.

  • Blood Test: Phosphorus Blood Test: Phosphorus

    Doctors may order a phosphorus blood test to help diagnose or monitor kidney disorders, calcium and bone problems, or other conditions.

  • Blood Test: Uric Acid Blood Test: Uric Acid

    Doctors may order this test if they suspect high levels of uric acid in the bloodstream. Some kids with leukemia or other types of cancer can have high levels of uric acid (hyperuricemia).

  • CAT Scan: Abdomen CAT Scan: Abdomen

    An abdominal CAT scan can detect inflammation, infection, injury or disease in the liver, spleen, kidneys, bladder, stomach, bowel, pancreas, adrenal glands, blood vessels, and lymph nodes.

  • CAT Scan: Chest CAT Scan: Chest

    A chest CAT scan is a painless test that uses a special X-ray machine to take black-and-white pictures of a patient's lungs, heart, blood vessels, airway passages, ribs and lymph nodes.

  • CAT Scan: Head CAT Scan: Head

    A head CAT scan is a painless test that uses a special X-ray machine to take pictures of a patient's brain, skull, and sinuses, as well as blood vessels in the head. It might be done to check for any number of conditions.

  • CAT Scan: Neck CAT Scan: Neck

    A neck CAT scan can detect signs of disease in the throat and surrounding areas. Doctors may order one to detect abscesses, birth defects, cysts, or tumors.

  • Spinal Tap (Lumbar Puncture) Spinal Tap (Lumbar Puncture)

    Find out how and why doctors perform lumbar punctures (spinal taps).

  • Ultrasound: Abdomen Ultrasound: Abdomen

    Doctors order abdominal ultrasounds when they're concerned about symptoms such as abdominal pain, repeated vomiting, abnormal liver or kidney function tests, or a swollen belly.

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