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Cancer Center

  • Blood Blood

    Blood is vital to bodily function. Read this article for the basics about blood, blood cells, blood diseases, and more.

  • Bones, Muscles, and Joints Bones, Muscles, and Joints

    Without bones, muscles, and joints, we couldn't stand, walk, run, or even sit. The musculoskeletal system supports our bodies, protects our organs from injury, and enables movement.

  • Brain and Nervous System Brain and Nervous System

    The brain controls everything we do, and is often likened to the central computer within a vast, complicated communication network, working at lightning speed.

  • Digestive System Digestive System

    The digestive process starts even before the first bite of food. Find out more about the digestive system and how our bodies break down and absorb the food we eat.

  • Eyes Eyes

    The eyes are small compared with most of the body's other organs, but their structure is incredibly complex. Learn more about eyes, vision, and common problems with both.

  • Female Reproductive System Female Reproductive System

    Learning about the female reproductive system, what it does, and the problems that can affect it can help you better understand your daughter's reproductive health.

  • Heart and Circulatory System Heart and Circulatory System

    The heart and circulatory system are our body's lifeline, delivering blood to the body's tissues. Brush up on your ticker with this body basics article.

  • Immune System Immune System

    The immune system, composed of special cells, proteins, tissues, and organs that protect against germs and microorganisms, is the body's defense against disease.

  • Kidneys and Urinary Tract Kidneys and Urinary Tract

    The bean-shaped kidneys, each about the size of a child's fist, perform several functions essential to health. Their most important role is to filter blood and produce urine.

  • Lungs and Respiratory System Lungs and Respiratory System

    By the time we're 70 years old, we will have taken at least 600 million breaths. All of this breathing couldn't happen without the respiratory system.

  • Male Reproductive System Male Reproductive System

    Understanding the male reproductive system, what it does, and problems that can affect it can help you better understand your son's reproductive health.

  • Metabolism Metabolism

    Brush up on metabolism basics - including common metabolic disorders - in this article.

  • Mouth and Teeth Mouth and Teeth

    Our mouth and teeth play an important role in our daily lives. Here's a course on the basics - including common problems of the mouth and teeth.

  • Skin, Hair, and Nails Skin, Hair, and Nails

    Our skin protects the network of tissues, muscles, bones, nerves, blood vessels, and everything else inside our bodies. Hair and nails are actually modified types of skin.

  • Spleen and Lymphatic System Spleen and Lymphatic System

    The lymphatic system is an extensive drainage network that helps keep bodily fluid levels in balance and defends the body against infections.

  • A to Z: Beta Thalassemia A to Z: Beta Thalassemia

    Learn about genetic disorders and diseases and conditions that affect the blood.

  • Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)

    ALL is the most common type of leukemia, affecting nearly 75% of kids who have this cancer of the blood cells. With treatment, most recover.

  • Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)

    Among kids with leukemia, 20% have this form of the blood cancer. With treatment, most recover.

  • Alpha Thalassemia Alpha Thalassemia

    Alpha thalassemia is a blood disorder in which the body has a problem producing alpha globin, a component of hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that transports oxygen throughout the body.

  • Anemia Anemia

    Anemia happens when there aren't enough healthy red blood cells in the body. It can be caused by many things, including dietary problems, medical treatments, and inherited conditions.

  • Beta Thalassemia Beta Thalassemia

    Beta thalassemia is a blood disorder in which the body has a problem producing beta globin, a component of hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that transports oxygen throughout the body.

  • Brain and Nervous System Cancers Brain and Nervous System Cancers

    These cancers are the most common type of cancer in children. When discovered early, they often can be cured.

  • Brain Tumors Brain Tumors

    Brain tumors are the second most common group of childhood cancers. Treatment requires a very specialized plan involving a team of medical specialists.

  • Central Venous Catheters Central Venous Catheters

    These surgically placed tubes let kids get blood drawn and receive intravenous (IV) medicines and fluids without repeated needle sticks.

  • Chemotherapy Chemotherapy

    Chemotherapy medications are used to treat cancer throughout the body by killing actively dividing cells. Learn more about chemo.

  • Childhood Cancer Childhood Cancer

    Different kinds of childhood cancer have different signs, symptoms, treatments, and outcomes. But today, over 80% of all children with cancer live 5 years or more.

  • Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML)

    While this type of blood cancer is more common in adults, it affects children, too. Thanks to advances in therapy, most kids with CML can be cured.

  • Ewing Sarcoma Ewing Sarcoma

    This type of cancer mainly affects adolescents and usually develops in the arms, legs, ribs, spinal column, and pelvis. With early diagnosis and treatment, many kids with Ewing sarcoma have a good chance of recovery.

  • Germ Cell Tumors Germ Cell Tumors

    Germ cell tumors happen when reproductive cells in an unborn baby don't develop as they should.

  • Hodgkin Lymphoma Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Hodgkin lymphoma is a type of cancer that affects the lymphatic system.

  • Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia (JMML) Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia (JMML)

    Learn about this type of blood cancer that usually affects kids under 2 years old.

  • Late Effects of Cancer and Cancer Treatment Late Effects of Cancer and Cancer Treatment

    Long-term side effects, or late effects, happen to many cancer survivors. With early diagnosis and proper follow-up care, most late effects can be treated or cured.

  • Leukemia Leukemia

    Leukemia refers to cancers of the white blood cells (also called leukocytes or WBCs). With the proper treatment, the outlook for kids who are diagnosed with leukemia is quite good.

  • Liver Tumors Liver Tumors

    Treatment for these abnormal growths (which can be cancerous or noncancerous) may involve surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation.

  • Lymphoma Lymphoma

    Lymphoma is cancer that begins in the body's lymphatic tissue. It's a common type of cancer in children, but most recover from it.

  • Melanoma Melanoma

    Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer. Find out how to lower your family's risk of getting melanoma and how doctors treat it.

  • Neuroblastoma Neuroblastoma

    Learn about neuroblastoma, a rare type of childhood cancer that develops in infants and young children.

  • Neurofibromatosis Neurofibromatosis

    Neurofibromatosis (NF) can cause tumors to grow on nerve tissue, producing skin and bone abnormalities. Learn more about NF, including how it's diagnosed and treated.

  • Neutropenia Neutropenia

    Certain cancers, or cancer treatment, can weaken the immune system, requiring a child to stay home to avoid exposure to germs. Here are ways to help your child make the best of it.

  • Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    A lymphoma is a cancer of the lymphatic system. The majority of kids with this type of cancer are cured.

  • Nutritional Needs for Kids With Cancer Nutritional Needs for Kids With Cancer

    Eating as well as possible and staying hydrated can help kids undergoing cancer treatment keep up their strength and deal with side effects. These tips can help.

  • Osteosarcoma Osteosarcoma

    Osteosarcoma is the most common type of bone cancer. Boys are more likely to have osteosarcoma than girls, and most cases of osteosarcoma involve the knee.

  • Radiation Therapy Radiation Therapy

    Radiation therapy, also called radiotherapy, irradiation, or X-ray therapy, is one of the most common forms of cancer treatment.

  • Retinoblastoma Retinoblastoma

    Retinoblastoma is a childhood cancer that affects the retina, the area of the eye responsible for sensing light and sending nerve signals to the brain.

  • Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS)

    Rhabdomyosarcoma is a cancerous tumor that shows up in the body's soft tissues. With early diagnosis and timely treatment, most kids make a full recovery.

  • What Is Elective Surgery? What Is Elective Surgery?

    Find out what the experts have to say.

  • Wilms Tumor Wilms Tumor

    Wilms tumor is a cancer of the kidneys that usually affects newborns and the very young. Fortunately, most kids with Wilms tumor survive and go on to live normal, healthy lives.

  • A Directory of Medical Tests A Directory of Medical Tests

    Sometimes, doctors need to order tests to evaluate a child's health or to understand what's causing an illness. Here are some common ones.

  • Biopsy Biopsy

    Doctors order biopsies to examine tissue or cells when they're concerned about a problem (such as an infection, inflammation, or cancer) in an organ.

  • Blood Test: Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST, or SGOT) Blood Test: Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST, or SGOT)

    An aspartate aminotransferase (AST) blood test is often part of an initial screening for liver problems.

  • Blood Test: Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP) Blood Test: Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP)

    A basic metabolic panel (BMP), commonly ordered as part of routine medical exam, is a set of blood tests that gives information about sugar (glucose) and calcium levels, kidney function, and electrolyte and fluid balance.

  • Blood Test: Complete Blood Count Blood Test: Complete Blood Count

    The complete blood count (CBC) is the most common blood test. It analyzes red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.

  • Blood Test: Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP) Blood Test: Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP)

    A comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) blood test helps evaluate kidney and liver function, sugar (glucose) and protein levels in the blood, and electrolyte and fluid balance.

  • Blood Test: Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) Blood Test: Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR)

    An erythrocyte sedimentation rate test (ESR) detects inflammation that may be caused by infection and some autoimmune diseases.

  • Blood Test: Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) Blood Test: Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH)

    Lactate dehydrogenase (also called lactic acid dehydrogenase, or LDH) is an enzyme found in almost all body tissues. The LDH test is generally used to screen for tissue damage.

  • Blood Test: Magnesium Blood Test: Magnesium

    Doctors do this test to assess blood levels of magnesium, which helps the muscles and nerves function, the heart maintain normal rhythm, the bones stay strong, and the body process energy and make proteins.

  • Blood Test: Partial Thromboplastin Time (PTT) Blood Test: Partial Thromboplastin Time (PTT)

    A partial thromboplastin time (PTT) test is used to evaluate blood's ability to clot. It may be done as part of an evaluation for a bleeding disorder or to monitor the effects of blood-thinning medicine.

  • Blood Test: Phosphorus Blood Test: Phosphorus

    Doctors may order a phosphorus blood test to help diagnose or monitor kidney disorders, calcium and bone problems, or other conditions.

  • Blood Test: Uric Acid Blood Test: Uric Acid

    Doctors may order this test if they suspect high levels of uric acid in the bloodstream. Some kids with leukemia or other types of cancer can have high levels of uric acid (hyperuricemia).

  • CAT Scan: Abdomen CAT Scan: Abdomen

    An abdominal CAT scan can detect inflammation, infection, injury or disease in the liver, spleen, kidneys, bladder, stomach, bowel, pancreas, adrenal glands, blood vessels, and lymph nodes.

  • CAT Scan: Chest CAT Scan: Chest

    A chest CAT scan is a painless test that uses a special X-ray machine to take black-and-white pictures of a patient's lungs, heart, blood vessels, airway passages, ribs and lymph nodes.

  • CAT Scan: Head CAT Scan: Head

    A head CAT scan is a painless test that uses a special X-ray machine to take pictures of a patient's brain, skull, and sinuses, as well as blood vessels in the head. It might be done to check for any number of conditions.

  • CAT Scan: Neck CAT Scan: Neck

    A neck CAT scan can detect signs of disease in the throat and surrounding areas. Doctors may order one to detect abscesses, birth defects, cysts, or tumors.

  • Lumbar Puncture (Spinal Tap) Lumbar Puncture (Spinal Tap)

    If your child is scheduled to have a lumbar puncture, also called a spinal tap, read about how this test is performed and when you can expect the results.

  • Surgeries and Procedures: Lumbar Puncture (Spinal Tap) Surgeries and Procedures: Lumbar Puncture (Spinal Tap)

    Find out how and why doctors perform lumbar punctures (spinal taps).

  • Ultrasound: Abdomen Ultrasound: Abdomen

    Doctors order abdominal ultrasounds when they're concerned about symptoms such as abdominal pain, repeated vomiting, abnormal liver or kidney function tests, or a swollen belly.

  • Cancer Center Cancer Center

    From treatments and prevention to coping with the emotional aspects of cancer, the Cancer Center provides comprehensive information that parents need.

  • Coping With Your Child's Cancer: Liz Scott's Story Coping With Your Child's Cancer: Liz Scott's Story

    Liz discusses how her family dealt with her daughter Alex's cancer, and tells the inspiring story that led them to raise money for cancer research through Alex's Lemonade Stand Foundation for Childhood Cancer Research.

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